More NMDA but less excitotoxicity? Now possible

Many researchers have wanted to enhance NMDA receptor signals to treat disorders such as schizophrenia. But at the same time, they need to avoid killing neurons with “excitotoxicity”, which comes from excess calcium entering the Read more

Update on pancreatic cancer: images and clinical trial

In 2018, Winship magazine had a feature story on pancreatic cancer. Our team developed an illustration that we hoped could convey the tumors’ complex structure, which contributes to making them difficult to treat. Oncologist Bassel El-Rayes described how the tumors recruit other cells to form a protective shell. "If you look at a tumor from the pancreas, you will see small nests of cells embedded in scar tissue," he says. "The cancer uses this scar Read more

New animal model for elimination of latent TB

An animal model could help researchers develop shorter courses of treatment for latent Read more

estrogen

Tracking how steroid hormone receptor proteins evolved

When thinking about the evolution of female and male, consider that the first steroid receptor proteins, which emerged about 550 million years ago, were responsive to estrogen. The ancestor of other steroid hormone receptors, responsive to hormones such as testosterone, progesterone and cortisol, emerged many millions of years later.

Blue = estrogen-responsive receptors, Orange = non-aromatized (progesterone, testosterone, cortisol) hormone-responsive

Biochemist Eric Ortlund and colleagues have a new paper in Structure that reconstructs how interactions of steroid receptor proteins evolved over time. This is a complex area to model, since the receptors change shape when they bind their respective hormones, allowing them to bring in other proteins and activate genes.

First author C. Denise Okafor, a FIRST postdoctoral fellow at Emory, will be starting a position as assistant professor at Penn State next month.

The scientists also show that a mutation in the mineralocorticoid receptor associated with severe hypertension (S810L), which makes the receptor more promiscuous, restores an ancestral interaction within the protein.

“Evolutionary substitutions rewired the networks, subsequently altering hormonal interactions and allowing steroid receptors to achieve ligand specificity over time,” the authors write.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Uncategorized Leave a comment

Estrogen receptor gene guides bird behavior

Please head over to our sister blog eScienceCommons to learn about how two types of white-throated sparrow have differences in behavior, which are driven by a chromosomal alteration. Scientists at Emory showed that changes in the estrogen receptor gene are responsible for the behavior differences.

White-striped birds tend to be http://www.magliettedacalcioit.com more aggressive and less parental than the tan-striped birds, you will learn. Hey, that sounds sort of like prairie voles and meadow voles.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment