Multiple myeloma patients display weakened antibody responses to mRNA COVID vaccines

Weakened antibody responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines among most patients with multiple Read more

Precision medicine with multiple myeloma

“Precision medicine” is an anti-cancer treatment strategy in which doctors use genetic or other tests to identify vulnerabilities in an individual’s cancer subtype. Winship Cancer Institute researchers have been figuring out how to apply this strategy to multiple myeloma, with respect to one promising drug called venetoclax, in a way that can benefit the most patients. Known commercially as Venclexta, venetoclax is already FDA-approved for some forms of leukemia and lymphoma. Researchers had observed that multiple Read more

Promiscuous protein droplets regulate immune gene activity

Biochemists at Emory are achieving insights into how an important regulator of the immune system switches its function, based on its orientation and local environment. New research demonstrates that the glucocorticoid receptor (or GR) forms droplets or “condensates” that change form, depending on its available partners. The inside of a cell is like a crowded nightclub or party, with enzymes and other proteins searching out prospective partners. The GR is particularly well-connected and promiscuous, and Read more

surgery

Biomaterials used for hips and knees

Orthopaedics is a constantly evolving subspecialty where medical technology and research drives the development of new products used for reconstruction of body parts, specifically for hip and knee replacements.

Emory has been on the forefront of investigating and using three materials for these replacements: ceramic on ceramic surfaces, metal on metal surfaces, or highly cross-linked polyethylene. These newer biomaterials can reduce wear rates by over 99 percent compared to previous materials, thus enhancing the life of the new hip or knee.

Adult reconstruction or hip and knee arthritis surgery delivers quality outcomes that make a dramatic improvement in a patient’s quality of life. At the first post-operative visit, patients are more comfortable, have less pain and are even more functional than before their surgery.

Orthopeadic surgeon James R. Roberson, MD, chairman, Department of Orthopaedics in Emory School of Medicine, and professor of orthopaedic surgery specializes in adult reconstructive surgery of the hip and knee.

Roberson has been involved in clinical research for more than 20 years to solve difficult problems of the arthritic hip and knee. He pioneered a minimally invasive surgery technique for knee replacement that allows him to use smaller incisions in certain patients who have uncomplicated conditions.

Visit Emory University Orthopaedics & Spine Center and Emory University Orthopaedics & Spine Hospital to learn more about orthopaedic services and watch a video about the hospital.

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Heated, targeted chemotherapy helps abdominal cancers

Cancer of the colon, ovaries, appendix or other organs within the abdomen often spreads to the lining of the abdominal cavity. Experts call this condition peritoneal surface malignancy. Until recently, treatment options for this form of cancer only provided relief from symptoms.

Emory University Hospital is one of a few facilities nationwide to utilize a new combination therapy to slow or prevent recurrence of this cancer. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (HIPEC) is a procedure done immediately following surgery that delivers heated chemotherapy directly into the abdominal cavity where it can penetrate cancerous tissue. Heat at 42 C (107 F) destroys cancer cells and enhances the power of chemotherapy.

The term “intraperitoneal” means that the treatment is delivered to the abdominal cavity. “Hyperthermic chemoperfusion” means that the solution containing chemotherapy is heated to a temperature greater than normal body temperature.

Charles Staley, MD, chief of surgical oncology at the Emory Winship Cancer Institute, says by bathing the abdomen with heated chemotherapy immediately following surgery doctors can administer a higher dose of medication than would normally be tolerated by a patient if given intravenously – the traditional way chemotherapy is administered.

During surgery, Staley removes all visible tumors throughout the abdomen, a procedure known as cytoreductive surgery. Following surgery, while still in the operating room, Staley administers the new treatment, which takes about two hours. Recent studies show improved prognosis in patients treated with HIPEC after the cytoreductive surgery.

Illustration of heated chemo therapy

Illustration of heated, targeted chemotherapy

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Heart bypass surgery via a small incision

It can be daunting for a patient to hear a heart specialist say bypass surgery is needed. An image comes to mind of traditional open-heart surgery and what this would entail.

A groundbreaking advance pioneered by Emory Heart & Vascular Center doctors now means some patients can have coronary artery bypass surgery without opening up the chest cavity and without stopping the heart.

Called “Endo-ACAB,” this endoscopic surgery is the done via a small incision. In addition, the heart team can combine the Endo-ACAB with angioplasty and Ray Ban outlet stents, thus correcting all blockages a patient has while keeping the chest intact.

Most patients are able to leave the hospital within 48 hours and return to full activity, including work, in two to three weeks, versus the two to three months needed for recovery after traditional surgery. Learn more about the procedure from Thomas Vassiliades, MD, in the video below.

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Small, single incision for surgery helps young patients

Emory University and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta pediatric physician Dr. Mark Wulkan is among the first surgeons in Georgia to perform single-site incision surgery on pediatric patients for routine surgeries.

Dr. Mark Wulkan

Dr. Mark Wulkan

Dr. Wulkan is using this method for multiple procedures, including appendectomy, removal of the spleen, and stomach surgery.

“Single-site surgery takes minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic surgery) to the next level,” said Dr. Wulkan, is an associate professor of surgery and pediatrics in the Emory University School of Medicine and who performs surgery at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston. “Children leave the operating room with virtually no scars.”

Traditional laparoscopic surgical incisions are made in different locations on the abdominal wall, resulting in several small scars. The single-site method, however, is considered scarless because only one incision is made in the belly button and is typically difficult to see. Pediatric patients who undergo single-site procedures enjoy all the benefits of laparoscopic surgery, such as rapid recovery and less pain than that associated with traditional open surgery.

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