Brain organoid model shows molecular signs of Alzheimer’s before birth

In a model of human fetal brain development, Emory researchers can see perturbations of epigenetic markers in cells derived from people with familial early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, which takes decades to appear. This suggests that in people who inherit mutations linked to early-onset Alzheimer’s, it would be possible to detect molecular changes in their brains before birth. The results were published in the journal Cell Reports. “The beauty of using organoids is that they allow us to Read more

The earliest spot for Alzheimer's blues

How the most common genetic risk factor in AD interacts with the earliest site of neurodegeneration Read more

Make ‘em fight: redirecting neutrophils in CF

Why do people with cystic fibrosis (CF) have such trouble with lung infections? The conventional view is that people with CF are at greater risk for lung infections because thick, sticky mucus builds up in their lungs, allowing bacteria to thrive. CF is caused by a mutation that affects the composition of the mucus. Rabindra Tirouvanziam, an immunologist at Emory, says a better question is: what type of cell is supposed to be fighting the Read more

Penn State

New antibiotic tactic vs gonorrhea

A new antibiotic compound can clear infection of multi-drug resistant gonorrhea in mice with a single oral dose, according to a new study led by researchers at Penn State and Emory.

Like other antibiotics, this one targets the ribosome, the factories that generate proteins in bacterial (and human) cells. But it does so at a site that is different from other antibiotics. This one interferes with the process of trans-translation, which bacteria use to rescue their ribosomes out of rough spots.

The results were published in Nature Communications. This was a collaboration involving several groups: biochemist Christine Dunham’s at Emory and Ken Keiler’s at Penn State, along with others at Florida State, the Uniformed Services University and the Massachusetts-based pharmaceutical company Microbiotix.

Zachary Aron, director of chemistry at Microbiotix, is the first author of the paper, and the compound is called MBX-4132. It is also active against other Gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis and Staph aureus, and the company says it will continue to optimize it.

At Emory, Dunham’s lab used cryo-electron microscopy to produce high-resolution images of the compound as it binds to the bacterial ribosome — see below.

Christine Dunham’s lab specializes in ribosomal structural studies

“A derivative of MBX-4132 binds to a location on the ribosome that is different from all known antibiotic binding sites,” Dunham says. “The new drug also displaces a region of a ribosomal protein that we think could be important during the normal process of trans-translation. Because trans-translation only occurs in bacteria and not in humans, we hope that the likelihood of the compound affecting protein synthesis in humans is greatly reduced, a hypothesis strongly supported by the safety and selectivity studies performed by Microbiotix.”

Multi-drug resistant gonorrhea is listed by the CDC as one of the five most urgent threats, among antibiotic resistant bacteria. Half of all gonorrhea infections are resistant to at least one antibiotic.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Uncategorized Leave a comment