Multiple myeloma patients display weakened antibody responses to mRNA COVID vaccines

Weakened antibody responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines among most patients with multiple Read more

Precision medicine with multiple myeloma

“Precision medicine” is an anti-cancer treatment strategy in which doctors use genetic or other tests to identify vulnerabilities in an individual’s cancer subtype. Winship Cancer Institute researchers have been figuring out how to apply this strategy to multiple myeloma, with respect to one promising drug called venetoclax, in a way that can benefit the most patients. Known commercially as Venclexta, venetoclax is already FDA-approved for some forms of leukemia and lymphoma. Researchers had observed that multiple Read more

Promiscuous protein droplets regulate immune gene activity

Biochemists at Emory are achieving insights into how an important regulator of the immune system switches its function, based on its orientation and local environment. New research demonstrates that the glucocorticoid receptor (or GR) forms droplets or “condensates” that change form, depending on its available partners. The inside of a cell is like a crowded nightclub or party, with enzymes and other proteins searching out prospective partners. The GR is particularly well-connected and promiscuous, and Read more

healthcare-associated infections

C. difficile: its name says what it is

If you’re looking for an expert on the “notorious” bacterium Clostridium difficile, consider Emory microbiologist Shonna McBride.

C. difficile is a prominent threat to public health, causing potential fatal cases of diarrheal disease. C. difficile can take over in someone’s intestines after antibiotics clear away other bacteria, making it dangerous for vulnerable patients in health care facilities. Healthcare-associated infections caused by other types of bacteria such as MRSA have been declining, leaving C. difficile as the most common cause, according to recently released data from the CDC.

Shonna McBride, PhD

McBride’s work focuses on how C. difficile is able to resist antimicrobial peptides produced by our bodies that keep other varieties of bacteria in check.

A 2013 paper from her lab defines genes that control C. difficile’s process for sequestering these peptides. It appears that its ability to resist host antimicrobial peptides evolved out of a system for resisting weapons other bacteria use against each other.

Since C. difficile requires an oxygen-free environment to grow, studying it can be more difficult than other bacteria. The McBride lab has a recent “video article” in the Journal of Visualized Experiments explaining how to do so using specialized equipment.

McBride explains in a recent Microbe magazine cover article that C. difficile’s ability to form spores is connected to the threat it poses:

Without the ability to form spores, the strict anaerobe C. diffıcile would quickly die in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. However, the intrinsic resilience of these spores makes them diffıcult to eradicate, facilitating the spread of this pathogen to new hosts, particularly in health care settings where they withstand many of the most potent disinfectants.

Yet the process of sporulation is markedly different in C. difficile compared with other kinds of bacteria, she says in the review.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Uncategorized Leave a comment