Brain organoid model shows molecular signs of Alzheimer’s before birth

In a model of human fetal brain development, Emory researchers can see perturbations of epigenetic markers in cells derived from people with familial early-onset Alzheimer’s disease, which takes decades to appear. This suggests that in people who inherit mutations linked to early-onset Alzheimer’s, it would be possible to detect molecular changes in their brains before birth. The results were published in the journal Cell Reports. “The beauty of using organoids is that they allow us to Read more

The earliest spot for Alzheimer's blues

How the most common genetic risk factor in AD interacts with the earliest site of neurodegeneration Read more

Make ‘em fight: redirecting neutrophils in CF

Why do people with cystic fibrosis (CF) have such trouble with lung infections? The conventional view is that people with CF are at greater risk for lung infections because thick, sticky mucus builds up in their lungs, allowing bacteria to thrive. CF is caused by a mutation that affects the composition of the mucus. Rabindra Tirouvanziam, an immunologist at Emory, says a better question is: what type of cell is supposed to be fighting the Read more

fluciclovine

Seeing the value: prostate cancer imaging agent developed at Winship

A study from Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University has the potential to change how patients whose prostate cancer recurs after prostatectomy are treated. The study was featured in both the plenary session and press program of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Annual Meeting on Monday, October 26.

The Emory Molecular Prostate Imaging for Radiotherapy Enhancement, or EMPIRE-1 trial (NCT01666808), is the first randomized trial of men with prostate cancer with recurring cancer to show that treatment based on advanced molecular imaging can improve disease-free survival rates. The molecular imaging used in the study, the radiotracer fluciclovine (18F) PET, was invented and developed at Emory and Winship.

The phase II/III trial was led by Winship radiation oncologist and prostate cancer specialist Ashesh B. Jani, MD, MSEE, FASTRO, and Winship nuclear radiology specialist David M. Schuster, MD, FACR. The trial enrolled 165 patients whose cancer recurred after having undergone prostatectomies. One group received radiation therapy based on conventional imaging. The other group received treatment that was finalized based on imaging with the fluciclovine PET radiotracer. Those whose treatment was adjusted according to the results of the advanced molecular imaging showed an improvement in the cancer control end point.

“At three years, the group getting treatment guided by PET fluciclovine had a 12 percent better cancer control rate, and this persisted at four years as well, with a 24% improvement,” says Jani. “We think the improvement was seen because the novel PET allowed for better selection of patients for radiation, better treatment decisions, and better radiation target design.”

Fluciclovine PET imaging has been getting some attention in the urology/prostate cancer world.

More details here.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Cancer Leave a comment

FDA approves Emory-developed cancer imaging probe

A cancer imaging agent that was originally developed at Emory was approved on Friday, May 27 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Axumin, a PET (positron emission tomography) imaging agent, is indicated for diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer in men who have elevated PSA levels after previous treatment. Axumin, now being commercialized by UK-based Blue Earth Diagnostics, is also known as 18F-fluciclovine or FACBC (an abbreviation for anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutane-1- carboxylic acid).

goodman-schuster

Mark Goodman, PhD (left) and David Schuster, MD (right)

Imaging using axumin/fluciclovine is expected to help doctors detect and localize recurrent prostate cancer, and could guide biopsy or the planning of additional treatment. Fluciclovine was originally developed at Emory by Mark Goodman and Timothy Shoup, who is now at Massachusetts General Hospital.

The earliest research on fluciclovine in the 1990s was on its use for imaging brain tumors, and it received a FDA “orphan drug” designation for the diagnosis of glioma in 2015. About a decade ago, Emory researchers stumbled upon fluciclovine’s utility with prostate cancer, while investigating its activity in a patient who appeared to have renal cancer, according to radiologist David Schuster, who has led several clinical studies testing fluciclovine.

“This led us to see if this radiotracer would be good for looking at prostate cancer, specifically because of its low native urinary excretion,” Schuster is quoted as saying in the radiology newsletter Aunt Minnie. “If you look at the history of medical science, it is taking advantage of the unexpected.”

Early research on the probe was supported by Nihon Mediphysics, and later support for clinical research on FACBC/fluciclovine came from the National Cancer Institute, the Georgia Research Alliance and the Georgia Cancer Coalition. [Both Emory and Goodman are eligible to receive royalties from its commercialization]. Additional information here.

References for two completed studies on fluciclovine in recurrent prostate cancer

Odewole OA et al. Comparison with CT imaging (2016) 

Schuster DM et al. Head to head comparison with ProstaScint (2014). Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Cancer Leave a comment