The locus coeruleus is a part of the brain that has been getting a lot of attention recently from Emory neuroscienceÂ researchers.
The locus coeruleus is the biggest source of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the brain. Located deep in the brainstem, it has connections all over the brain, and is thought to be involved in arousal and attention, stress, memory, the sleep-wake cycle and balance.
Researchers interested in neurodegenerative disease want to look at the locus coeruleus because it may be one of the first structures to degenerate in diseases such as Alzheimerâ€™s and Parkinsonâ€™s. In particular, the influential studies of German neuro-anatomist Heiko Braak highlight the locus coeruleus as a key â€œcanary in the coal mineâ€ indicator of neurodegeneration.
Thatâ€™s why neurologist Dan Huddleston, working with biomedical imaging specialists Xiangchuan Chen and Xiaoping Hu and colleagues at Emory, hasÂ been developing a method for estimating the volume of the locus coeruleus by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their procedure uses MRI tuned in such a way to detect the pigment neuromelanin (see panel), whichÂ accumulate in both theÂ locus coeruleus and in the substantia nigra. Read more