Preparing for weapons production

At Lab Land, we have been thinking and writing a lot about plasma cells, which are like mobile microscopic weapons factories. Plasma cells secrete antibodies. They are immune cells that appear in the blood (temporarily) and the bone marrow (long-term). A primary objective for a vaccine – whether it’s against SARS-CoV-2, flu or something else -- is to stimulate the creation of plasma cells. A new paper from Jerry Boss’s lab in Nature Communications goes into Read more

SARS-CoV-2 culture system using human airway cells

Journalist Roxanne Khamsi had an item in Wired highlighting how virologists studying SARS-CoV-2 and its relatives have relied on Vero cells, monkey kidney cells with deficient antiviral responses. Vero cells are easy to culture and infect with viruses, so they are a standard laboratory workhorse. Unfortunately, they may have given people the wrong idea about the controversial drug hydroxychloroquine, Khamsi writes. In contrast, Emory virologist Mehul Suthar’s team recently published a Journal of Virology paper on culturing Read more

Triple play in science communication

We are highlighting Emory BCDB graduate student Emma D’Agostino, who is a rare triple play in the realm of science communication. Emma has her own blog, where she talks about what it’s like to have cystic fibrosis. Recent posts have discussed the science of the disease and how she makes complicated treatment decisions together with her doctors. She’s an advisor to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation on patient safety, communicating research and including the CF community Read more

Wnt signaling

Drying up the HIV reservoir

Immunologists refer to the cells that harbor HIV, even while someone is getting effective antiretroviral drugs, as the “reservoir.” That term inspires a lot of waterway metaphors! Unfortunately, drying up the HIV reservoir is not as straightforward as building a dam across a stream.  But it is the goal, if we are talking about the still-elusive possibility of a HIV cure.

Maud Mavigner, Ann Chahroudi and colleagues at Yerkes recently published a paper in Journal of Virology on targeting the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway as a tactic. They were studying SIV-infected macaques, in the context of ongoing antiretroviral therapy.

The HIV reservoir is more difficult to visualize than a human-made aquatic reservoir

Wnt is one of those funky developmental signaling pathways that gets re-used over and over again, whether it’s in the early embryo,the brain or the intestine. Beta-catenin is a central protein in that pathway.

In this case, Wnt/beta-catenin regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of memory T cells – important components of the HIV reservoir. Mavigner’s team used PRI-724, a molecule that blocks interaction between beta-catenin and another protein it needs to turn on genes. PRI-724 has also been investigated in the context of cancer clinical trials. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment

Long-lasting blood vessel repair in animals via stem cells

Stem cell researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have made an advance toward having a long-lasting “repair caulk” for blood vessels. The research could form the basis of a treatment for peripheral artery disease, derived from a patient’s own cells. Their results were recently published in the journal Circulation.

A team led by Young-sup Yoon, MD, PhD developed a new method for generating endothelial cells, which make up the lining of blood vessels, from human induced pluripotent stem cells.. When endothelial cells are surrounded by a supportive gel and implanted into mice with damaged blood vessels, they become part of the animals’ blood vessels, surviving for more than 10 months.

“We tried several different gels before finding the best one,” Yoon says. “This is the part that is my dream come true: the endothelial cells are really contributing to endogenous vessels. When I’ve shown these results to people in the field, they say ‘Wow.'”

Previous attempts to achieve the same effect elsewhere had implanted cells lasting only a few days to weeks, although those studies mostly used adult stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells or endothelial progenitor cells, he says.

“When cells are implanted on their own, many of them die quickly, and the main therapeutic benefits are from growth factors they secrete,” he adds. “When these endothelial cells are delivered in a gel, they are protected. It takes several weeks for most of them to migrate to vessels and incorporate into them.” Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Heart Leave a comment