For a May explainer, weâ€™d like to spotlight liver fibrosis. Two recent papers from Emory research teams in the journal Hepatology focus on this process.
Liver fibrosis is an accumulation of scar tissue and proteins outside cells that occurs as a result of chronic damage to the liver. It involves inflammation and immune cells, as well as activation of a type of cell in the liver (hepatic stellate cells), which usually stores fat and vitamin A.Â Fibrosis and cirrhosis are not the same. Think of it this way: cirrhosis is the late stage of the disease, but fibrosis is how someone can get there.
The liver has a remarkable, even mythical, ability to regenerate, but there is a long list of ways that someone can injure this most vital organ. Quickly – take too much acetaminophen (the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States). More slowly – develop a hepatitis C infection. Drink large quantities of alcohol. Or something with more subtle effects: consume a diet high in sugar, which can lead to fatty liver. The relationship between fatty liver and more serious liver diseaseÂ is currently underÂ investigation.
One of the Hepatology papers comes at liver fibrosis from a malaria angle. Patrice Mimche, Tracey Lamb and colleagues show the involvement of EphB2 tyrosine kinase, a signaling molecule not previously known to be involved in liver fibrosis.
Malaria parasites have a complex life cycle, growing in the liver and then in the blood. Lamb says an important part of her paper was the finding that in mouse malaria infection, EphB2 is activated during the blood stageÂ on immune cells infiltrating intoÂ the liver. EphB2 (an active drug discovery target)Â may be acting as a tissue-specific adhesion molecule, she says.
Pediatric infectious disease specialist Tracey Lamb earned recognition this week for her NIH New Innovator award. The goal of Lambâ€™s project is to develop a probiotic yeast as a platform for inexpensive oral vaccines.
â€œWe have a long way to go to develop this vaccine Magliette Calcio A Poco Prezzo delivery system to the point where it is ready for testing in the clinic,â€ she says. â€œNow my lab can undertake more intensive research on this project to demonstrate that our design is effective in protecting against infection.”
1. The probiotic yeast Lamb is planning to develop as a vaccine platform is Saccharomyces boulardii, which has been tested in clinical trials as a treatment for gastrointestinal disorders such as Clostridium dificile infection and several forms of diarrhea. It was originally isolated in the 1920s from fruit in Southeast Asia.
2. Saccharomyces boulardii is very close to standard bakerâ€™s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and is actually considered a subspecies of S. cerevisiae. Genomic differences that http://www.magliettedacalcioit.com contribute to its probiotic properties are under investigation.
3. The New Innovator program, running since 2007, is one of the ways the National Institutes of Health seeks to reward especially creative or potentially transformative research proposals. The New Innovator awards, up to $1.5 million over five years, are meant for newly independent researchers building their careers. Lamb managed to snag Emoryâ€™s first.