Head to head narcolepsy/hypersomnia study

At the sleep research meeting in San Antonio this year, there were signs of an impending pharmaceutical arms race in the realm of narcolepsy. The big fish in a small pond, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, was preparing to market its recently FDA-approved medication: Sunosi/solriamfetol. Startup Harmony Biosciences was close behind with pitolisant, already approved in Europe. On the horizon are experimental drugs designed to more precisely target the neuropeptide deficiency in people with classic narcolepsy type 1 Read more

Anti-inflammatory approach suppresses cancer metastasis in animal models

An anti-inflammatory drug called ketorolac, given before surgery, can promote long-term survival in animal models of cancer metastasis, a team of scientists has found. The research suggests that flanking chemotherapy with ketorolac or similar drugs -- an approach that is distinct from previous anti-inflammatory cancer prevention efforts -- can unleash anti-tumor immunity. The findings, published in Journal of Clinical Investigation, also provide a mechanistic explanation for the anti-metastatic effects of ketorolac, previously observed in human Read more

I3 Venture awards info

Emory is full of fledgling biomedical proto-companies. Some of them are actual corporations with employees, while others are ideas that need a push to get them to that point. Along with the companies highlighted by the Emory Biotech Consulting Club, Dean Sukhatme’s recent announcement of five I3 Venture research awards gives more examples of early stage research projects with commercial potential. This is the third round of the I3 awards; the first two were Wow! Read more

T cell receptor

Antiviral success makes some immune cells stickier

As they succeed in clearing a viral infection from the body, some virus-hunting T cells begin to stick better to their target cells, researchers from Emory Vaccine Center and Georgia Tech have discovered.

The increased affinity helps the T cells kill their target cells more efficiently, but it depends both on the immune cells’ anatomic location and the phase of the infection.

The results were published this week in the journal Immunity.

Arash Grakoui, PhD

Arash Grakoui, PhD

After the peak of the infection, cells within the red pulp of the spleen or in the blood displayed a higher affinity for their targets than those within the white pulp. However, the white pulp T cells were more likely to become long-lasting memory T cells, critical for vaccines.

“These results provide a better understanding of how memory precursor populations are established and may have important implications for the development of efficacious vaccines,” the scientists write.

In the mouse model the researchers were using, the differences in affinity were only detectable a few days after the non-lethal LCMV viral infection peaks. How the differences were detected illustrates the role of serendipity in science, says senior author Arash Grakoui, PhD.

Typically, the scientists would have taken samples only at the peak (day 7 of the infection) and weeks later, when memory T cells had developed, Grakoui says. In January 2014, the weather intervened during one of these experiments. Snow disrupted transportation in the Atlanta area and prevented postdoctoral fellow Young-Jin Seo, PhD from taking samples from the infected mice until day 11, which is when the differences in affinity were apparent.

Seo and Grakoui collaborated with graduate student Prithiviraj Jothikumar and Cheng Zhu, PhD at Georgia Tech, using a technique Zhu’s laboratory has developed to measure the interactions between T cells and their target cells. Co-author Mehul Suthar, PhD performed gene expression analysis.

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Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment