Overcoming cardiac pacemaker "source-sink mismatch"

Instead of complication-prone electronic cardiac pacemakers, biomedical engineers at Georgia Tech and Emory envision the creation of “biological Read more

Hope Clinic part of push to optimize HIV vaccine components

Ten years ago, the results of the RV144 trial– conducted in Thailand with the help of the US Army -- re-energized the HIV vaccine field, which had been down in the Read more

Invasive cancer cells marked by distinctive mutations

What does it take to be a leader – of cancer cells? Adam Marcus and colleagues at Winship Cancer Institute are back, with an analysis of mutations that drive metastatic behavior among groups of lung cancer cells. The findings were published this week on the cover of Journal of Cell Science, and suggest pharmacological strategies to intervene against or prevent metastasis. Marcus and former graduate student Jessica Konen previously developed a technique for selectively labeling “leader” Read more

summer

Sunscreen: Looking Beyond the Numbers

Carl Washington, MD

Seems pretty obvious – if a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 is good, then an SPF of 100 should be at least three times as good.

Unfortunately, that is not the case.  There are other important details to consider when you are purchasing a sunscreen.

“People have become much more educated about the importance of using sunscreen, and manufacturers have responded with an abundance of products,” says Carl Washington, MD, associate professor of Dermatology at Emory University School of Medicine. “Unfortunately, the labeling can be confusing and many of the current sunscreens only contain the ingredients necessary to offer protection against sunburn, but not skin cancer or aging.”

Recently, the Food and Drug Administration created new regulations to establish standards for sunscreen manufacturers to follow before they label their products.

Under the new regulations, which will go into effect in 2012, sunscreen products that protect against all types of sun-induced skin damage will be labeled “broad spectrum” and “SPF 15” or higher on the container. Only products that have been tested to ensure they protect against both UVA (ultraviolet radiation A) and UVB (ultraviolet radiation B) radiation will be allowed to use this labeling.  Broad-spectrum sunscreens of SPF 15 and higher can also be labeled as protective against skin cancer and premature aging. The maximum SPF value is set at 50-plus because the FDA says anything higher doesn’t provide a significant amount of additional protection.

Manufacturers will have to include warning labels on products that are not broad spectrum. Products that claim to be water resistant must indicate how long the consumer should expect to be protected in the water, and using such language as “waterproof” or “sweat proof” will not be allowed.

“Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, and the number of people affected keeps rising. Simply getting into the habit of using a sunscreen every day – with the appropriate levels of protection – can make a significant difference in preventing many skin cancers, as well as premature aging,” says Washington.

“These new regulations will help consumers understand the difference in degrees of sun protection, and choose carefully.”

Washington also suggests staying out of direct sunlight between 10 am and 2 pm, seeking shade when you are outdoors, remembering to reapply sunscreen every two hours and wearing protective clothing.

Posted on by Kathi Baker in Uncategorized Leave a comment

Dog days of summer bring ozone challenges

Surviving the heat isn’t the only concern for people in Atlanta during the dog days of summer, the hottest time of the year in the northern hemisphere from early July to mid-August. During this time, ozone levels peak in most industrialized cities, and heavily populated areas tend to be more at risk for pollution, in part, because of increased emissions from cars, trucks and factories.

Cars on the road

Cars on the road

Cherry Wongtrakool, MD, specialist in pulmonary medicine, says pollution is generally broken down into ozone and particulate matter, but can also include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides. Particulate matter is complex and includes organic chemicals including acid, metals, dust, smoke and soil. It is often classified by size and particles less than 10 micrometers are included in the air quality index, a common measure of the air pollution level.

In addition to increasing symptoms of asthma and causing respiratory symptoms like cough and shortness of breath, Wongtrakool says pollution has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses.

She notes that studies to date suggest long-term exposure may accelerate atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Larger population studies have also suggested there are associations between air pollution and increased risk for cancer, and air pollution and increased risk of death secondary to cardiopulmonary causes.

Wongtrakool, who is sssistant professor of medicine in the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, Emory School of  Medicine, says if you live in a big city like Atlanta, you can reduce your exposure to air pollution by limiting your time in the car, remaining indoors during the hottest part of the day – typically afternoon and early evening – and reducing time spent doing outdoor activity, particularly activity requiring heavy exertion. People with underlying lung disease should avoid going out when the air quality index is poor, she advises.

Posted on by Jennifer Johnson in Uncategorized Leave a comment