Study finds ‘important implications’ to understanding immunity against COVID-19

New research from Emory University indicates that nearly all people hospitalized with COVID-19 develop virus-neutralizing antibodies within six days of testing positive. The findings will be key in helping researchers understand protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and in informing vaccine development. The test that Emory researchers developed also could help determine whether convalescent plasma from COVID-19 survivors can provide immunity to others, and which donors' plasma should be used. The antibody test developed by Emory and validated Read more

Emory plays leading role in landmark HIV prevention study of injectable long-acting cabotegravir

Emory University played a key role in a landmark international study evaluating the safety and efficacy of the long-acting, injectable drug, cabotegravir (CAB LA), for HIV prevention. The randomized, controlled, double-blind study found that cabotegravir was 69% more effective (95% CI 41%-84%) in preventing HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women who have sex with men when compared to the current standard of care, daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Read more

Yerkes researchers find Zika infection soon after birth leads to long-term brain problems

Researchers from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center have shown Zika virus infection soon after birth leads to long-term brain and behavior problems, including persistent socioemotional, cognitive and motor deficits, as well as abnormalities in brain structure and function. This study is one of the first to shed light on potential long-term effects of Zika infection after birth. “Researchers have shown the devastating damage Zika virus causes to a fetus, but we had questions about Read more

prostaglandins

Drug discovery: selective anti-inflammatory approach to AD

Anyone familiar with Alzheimer’s disease research can say what a challenge drug development has been. In Emory’s Department of Pharmacology, Thota Ganesh is focusing on an anti-inflammatory approach. Ganesh’s work has been supported by the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation and more recently by a five-year, $3.6 million grant from the National Institute on Aging.

Medicinal chemist Thota Ganesh, PhD, is focusing on an anti-inflammatory approach to Alzheimer’s disease, targeting the prostaglandin receptor EP2.

An assistant professor at Emory since 2011, he is continuing research he undertook with Ray Dingledine on EP2 antagonists. In animals, they showed that this class of compounds could reduce injury to the brain after a prolonged seizure. Since then, they have shown that EP2 antagonists have similar effects in protecting against organophosphate pesticides/nerve agents.

EP2 is one of the four receptors for prostaglandin E2, a hormone involved in processes such as fever, childbirth, digestion and blood pressure regulation. Before Ganesh and colleagues from the Emory Chemical Biology Discovery Center started looking for them, chemicals that could block EP2 selectively were not available.

Their idea is: blocking EP2 is a better strategy than the more general approach of going after prostaglandins, the targets for non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen and celecoxib (Celebrex). Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment

Football metabolomics

Following on the recent announcement of the Atlanta Hawks training center, here’s a Nov. 2015 research paper from Emory’s sports cardiologist Jonathan Kim, published in Annals of Sports Medicine and Research.

Jonathan Kim, MD

Kim and colleagues from Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute studied blood samples from 15 freshman football players at Georgia Tech before and after their first competitive season. The researchers had the help of metabolomics expert Dean Jones. Kim has also previously studied blood pressure risk factors in college football players.

On average, football players’ resting heart rate went down significantly (72 to 61 beats per minute), but there were no significant changes in body mass index or blood pressure. The research team observed changes in players’ amino acid metabolism, which they attribute to muscle buildup.

This finding may seem obvious, but imagine what a larger, more detailed analysis could do: start to replace locker room myths and marketing aimed at bodybuilders with science. This was a small, preliminary study, and the authors note they were not able to assess diet or nutritional supplementation. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Heart Leave a comment