Genomics plus human intelligence

The power of gene sequencing to solve puzzles when combined with human Read more

'Master key' microRNA has links to both ASD and schizophrenia

Recent studies of complex brain disorders such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have identified a few "master keys," risk genes that sit at the center of a network of genes important for brain function. Researchers at Emory and the Chinese Academy of Sciences have created mice partially lacking one of those master keys, called MIR-137, and have used them to identify an angle on potential treatments for ASD. The results were published this Read more

Shape-shifting RNA regulates viral sensor

OAS senses double-stranded RNA: the form that viral genetic material often takes. Its regulator is also Read more

pregnancy

Strategy to defend vs double hit at beginning of life

Chorioamnionitis is a complication of pregnancy: inflammation of the membranes surrounding the fetus, caused by a bacterial infection. It has the potential to inflict damage to the brain of the fetus, especially when combined with fetal hypoxia, and is a known risk factor for developing cerebral palsy.

Chia-Yi (Alex) Kuan and his team, who study fetal brain injury in the Department of Pediatrics, have a new paper in Journal of Neuroscience on a strategy for inhibiting fetal brain inflammation. Postdoctoral fellows Dianer Yang, Yu-Yo Sun and Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik are co-first authors.

The researchers show that a type of immune cells called Th17 cells seems to be driving inflammation because the rest of the fetal immune system is still immature. A marker of Th17 cells is elevated in blood samples from human infants with chorioamnionitis, the researchers found. Th17 cells are thought to be important for both autoimmunity and anti-microbial responses.

A drug called fingolimod, which stops immune cells from circulating out of the lymph nodes, was effective in reducing inflammation-induced fetal brain injury in animal models. Fingolimod has been approved by the FDA for use with multiple sclerosis and has been studied in clinical trials of kidney transplantation. The authors write that it may be a potential add-on to hypothermia as a treatment for infants in danger of hypoxia + infection-induced brain damage.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology, Neuro Leave a comment

Revisiting landmark folate-autism study

Geneticist Joe Cubells is doing some monumental work re-examining a Chinese study of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and its impact on autism risk. He is also the Medical Director at the Emory Autism Center. Please see SFARI to check it out.

 

 

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment

A model for fetal hemolytic disease

Part of standard prenatal care for a pregnant woman is to test her blood for antibodies against the red blood cells of her baby, such as anti-Rhesus D antibodies. An incompatibility can result in hemolytic disease, where the mother’s antibodies attack fetal red blood cells. The development of a therapy for Rhesus D incompatibility was one of the major success stories of medical research in the 1960s.

Jeanne Hendrickson, MD

Although Rhesus D is the most common troublemaker, other anti-red blood cell antibodies such as those against the Kell protein can also cause hemolytic disease of the fetus. The origin is often from sensitization related to previous blood transfusions. At a recent seminar, pediatric hematologist Jeanne Hendrickson described a recent case that illustrates how serious this condition can be. Hendrickson is associate medical director of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta’s Blood and Tissue Bank, and an assistant professor in pediatrics and pathology at Emory.

Early in her second pregnancy, a woman had developed anti-Kell antibodies, causing the baby to develop anemia and the early stages of fetal heart failure. Several intrauterine transfusions, which carry a risk of miscarriage, were required. At one point, Hendrickson says, the mother was in the http://www.raybani.com/ hospital for a week while doctors looked for compatible blood. When the baby was born, he was very pale and continues to need medical care, because anti-Kell antibodies interfere with red blood cell development.

Unfortunately, there is nothing analogous to RhoGam (the standard therapy for Rhesus D) for this situation. Today, 6 out of 1000 pregnancies are affected by red blood cell immunization. And despite its success, Hendrickson says some mystery remains about exactly how RhoGam works.

First author Sean Stowell, MD, PhD

First author Sean Stowell, MD, PhD

She and her colleagues have a new paper in the journal Blood describing an animal model for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn involving anti-Kell antibodies. Postdoc Sean Stowell is the first author Ray Ban outlet of the paper. This is the first animal model of anti-red blood cell antibodies generated through pregnancy – previous rabbit experiments dating back to the 1950s involved transfusions and/or immunizations.

The model uses mice that have been engineered to produce a human form of Kell protein on their red blood cells. When male mice positive for this extra gene mate with females who don’t have it, the litters are smaller and some of the pups are anemic or stillborn. The authors say that the model could provide a platform for studying how anti-red blood cell antibodies develop, as well as potential therapies.

Another recent paper from Stowell and Hendrickson describes a similar mouse model involving anti-red blood cell antibodies that develop because of transfusions rather than pregnancy. Between 3 and 5 percent of patients who get a blood transfusion will develop antibodies against Ray Ban online something on the red blood cells they received, making future transfusions possibly more problematic.

At the seminar, we learned that Hendrickson will be moving to Yale University later this summer. We wish her good luck at her new job.

 

 

 

 

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment

Stress increases health risks to mother and fetus

At Emory’s fifth annual predictive health symposium “Human Health: Molecules to Mankind,” Emory GYN/OB Sarah L. Berga, MD, discussed the state of childbirth in the United States and how maternal stress affects pregnant women and their fetuses.

Berga is McCord professor and chair of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Emory School of Medicine. Sadly, Berga has seen maternal mortality rise steadily since the 1980s when she entered her medical residency. Georgia, she says, has the worse maternal mortality in the country. And the United States fares worse than many countries when it comes to maternal mortality.

Despite the unfortunate rise in maternal mortality of late, the good news is physicians have now started to pay more attention to the effect of stress—both the physical and emotional kind—on women and their fetuses. Recent research shows stress has the same negative effect on the body as do organic diseases, such as thyroid disease. In fact, too much stress reduces thyroxine levels by about 50 percent, says Berga. But because there’s no clinical recognition of this, tests are needed to determine if thyroxine levels are indeed insufficient.

Read more

Posted on by Robin Tricoles in Uncategorized Leave a comment

Importance of flu vaccinations for pregnant women

Pregnant women are at the top of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s priority list when it comes to vaccinating people against the novel H1N1 flu virus this year. Not only should pregnant women receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine, they should also receive the usual seasonal flu vaccine, say Emory experts.

Staying healthy in pregnancy

Staying healthy in pregnancy

Because pregnancy weakens the immune system, a pregnant woman who gets any type of flu has a greater chance for serious health problems. Pregnant women who contract H1N1 flu are more likely to be admitted to the hospital, compared with other people in general that get H1N1 flu. Pregnant women are also more likely to have serious illness, including pneumonia and death from this particular novel strain.

Both vaccines are made with a dead, or inactivated, flu virus and are given as an injection, usually in the arm. The other type of flu vaccine is a nasal spray and is not recommended for pregnant women. The nasal spray vaccine is safe for women after they have delivered, even if they are nursing.

A recent study by Emory researchers found that seasonal flu vaccination of pregnant women can benefit both mothers and infants, says Kevin Ault, MD, associate professor in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Emory.

Saad B. Omer, MBBS, MPH, PhD, assistant professor of global health at Emory’s Rollins School of Public Health, served as senior author on the report, published in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. The study shows that there is substantial evidence that vaccination is not only safe for pregnant women but that it is critical for protecting women and their infants against serious complications from the flu.

Other members of the research team included Ault and Carlos del Rio, MD, professor and chair in the Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University.

The seasonal flu shot has been given to millions of pregnant women over several decades . Flu shots have not been shown to cause any harm to pregnant women or their babies. The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is being made in the same way and by the same manufacturers as the seasonal flu vaccine, explains Ault.

Ault also serves as principal investigator of a seasonal flu vaccine clinical trial underway at Emory Vaccine Center involving pregnant women.

Posted on by Janet Christenbury in Uncategorized Leave a comment