A compound found in trace amounts in alcoholic beverages is more effective at combating seizures in rats exposed to an organophosphate nerve agent than the current recommended treatment, according to new research published Read more
A recent paper from neurologists Lynn Marie Trotti and Donald Bliwise, with anesthesiologist Paul Garcia, substantiates a phenomenon discussed anecdotally in the idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) community. Let’s call it “post-anesthetic inertia.” People with IH say that undergoing general anesthesia made their sleepiness or disrupted sleep-wake cycles worse, sometimes for days or weeks. This finding is intriguing because it points toward a trigger mechanism for IH. And it pushes anesthesiologists to take IH diagnoses into Read more
Tracey-Ann Read, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University School of Medicine and director of the Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Laboratory at Emory was awarded a $75,000 grant for her work. She is studying the cell of origin that is responsible for the highly malignant pediatric brain tumor known as an Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT). She is also developing a mouse model to study this very lethal brain cancer that occurs in early childhood.
Robert Craig Castellino, MD, assistant professor of pediatrics at Emory and pediatric hematologist/oncologist at Childrenâ€™s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston received $50,000 to support his research efforts. He is studying how the childhood brain cancer, known as medulloblastoma, can metastasize from the brain to other sites in the body, specifically the spine. Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor.
SBTF board members and researchers who were awarded grants pose following the April ceremony.
Read and Castellino received the awards at the SBTFâ€™s Grant Awards Ceremony in April at Emory University Hospital Midtown. Two other researchers from Duke University were also presented with grant money for their contributions in brain tumor research in adults.
Emory neurosurgeon Costas Hadjipanayis, MD, PhD, is the president of the Southeastern Brain Tumor Foundation. He says research, from young investigators such as these, is crucial in the race to find a cure for brain tumors. As federal research funding becomes even more difficult to obtain with cuts in funding, private foundation grants, such as from the SBTF, can permit researchers to start important research projects that can provide preliminary data for bigger grant proposals.
The SBTF awards $200,000-300,000 each year to major medical centers throughout the Southeast in support of cutting-edge brain and spinal tumor research.
When Jon Pomenville of Anderson, SC, decided to donate a kidney altruistically to someone â€“ anyonein need, anywhere in the country â€“ little did he know his selfless sacrifice would in turn change the lives of not one, but numerous individuals and their families, including one little boy from Atlanta.
And little did he know that the selfless, anonymous act would quickly become not so anonymous. During a recent post-surgical clinic visit to Emory University Hospital, Pomenville met by accident â€“ right in the transplant clinic waiting room â€“ many of the individuals whose lives were changed. Soon the patients â€“ recipients and donors â€“ two father and son combinations and Pomenville, the man who would give to anyone â€“ were hugging, shaking hands, and recounting their backgrounds and experiences.
Pomenville and the others, who were all part of what is called a paired kidney exchange, were unwittingly scheduled for appointments within a short period of one another. As one person began recounting the experience, eyes and ears began to focus on the tale being told from across a crowded room.
A chance meeting in a doctors’ waiting room led to a meeting between most of the people involved in the paired kidney exchange.
The Emory Transplant Center created and opened its innovative Paired Donor Kidney Exchange Program in 2009, providing greater hope for patients in need of kidney transplants. According to Kenneth Newell, MD, director of Emory’s living donor program, a paired exchange donation allows healthy individuals to donate a kidney to either a friend, loved one, or even altruistically to a stranger, despite incompatible blood matches. In paired donation, a donor and recipient are matched with another incompatible donor and recipient and the kidneys are exchanged between the pairs.
The procedure is another form of living donor transplantation. Donated kidneys also come from recently deceased donors. While most kidneys from deceased donors function well, studies have shown that a kidney from a living donor, either a blood relative or an unrelated person, provides the greatest chance for long-term success.
“Paired donor exchanges allow us to cast a much wider net to find compatible donors and recipients,” says Newell. “With a paired kidney transplant, one incompatible donor-pair is able to give a healthy kidney to a compatible recipient. In exchange, the second donor-recipient pair will give a compatible kidney to the first donor-recipient pair, making two compatible living donor transplants possible and increasing the potential number of available donor kidneys. This option can help those patients waiting for kidney transplants who have family members or friends willing to be donors and who are medically suitable, but who have an ABO blood type that is incompatible with the recipient’s blood type.”
Because of Pomenvilleâ€™s donation, a 7-year-old boy named Zion was able to receive a lifesaving kidney from an unrelated donor because his dad, Mike, was able to donate. His surgery took place at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston.
And Gerald Smith of Five Points, Ala., would receive his life-saving kidney because his son, Matt, a recent University of Alabama graduate, would donate his to Zion. And finally, 20 year-old Edward Hill of Macon, a young man with a history of health challenges, would also receive his transplant at Childrenâ€™s Healthcare of Atlanta â€“ completing the six-person cycle, although the donor of Edwardâ€™s kidney is still unknown.
And Zion and Matt Smith will not only share a common bond and connection throughout life in the form of a kidney, but something even sweeter that that â€¦ blue Powerade.
â€œIâ€™ve always really enjoyed drinking Powerade, particularly the blue flavor,â€ says Smith. Shortly after Zion awoke from his surgery, he inexplicably began requesting the blue-tinted soft drink too.
Other powerful kidney transplant stories out of Emory:
Dr. Demuth (pictured far right) was a key player in advancing legislation to call attention to the challenges of food allergies in children. She and several of her patients were on hand to witness Governor Nathan Deal signing a proclamation declaring May 8 to 14 Food Allergy Awareness Week in Georgia.
â€œThe new NIAID guidelines help providers understand food allergies,â€ Demuth says. â€œThey address when we should consider a food allergy and the utility of testing for food allergy. In addition, they address the management of food allergies, including acute reactions and follow-up of individuals with food allergy.â€
The guidelines are comprised of input from a panel of 25 experts and draw the important distinction between food allergies and food intolerances. Food allergies are defined as â€œan adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response hat occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food.â€ Food intolerances produce an adverse reaction but are likely not related to an immune response.
The most common food allergies are to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish and soy. Fortunately, the understanding of food allergies and the best ways to manage them is expanding.
â€œThe gold standard of treatment of food allergies â€“ avoidance â€“ has remained constant throughout the years,â€ Demuth says. â€œThere are new therapies on the horizon such as oral immunotherapy, vaccines and a Chinese herbal extract; however, these therapies are still considered experimental. At the Emory-Childrenâ€™s Center, we are active in research and advocacy in pediatric allergies so that we can bring new treatments to our patients when they are ready for widespread use. We are dedicated solely to the care of children with allergic and immunologic disorders and offer multidisciplinary clinics to offer a specialized level of care.â€
Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) and very preterm (VPT) infants not born in highly specialized, level III hospitals have a higher risk of neonatal and pre-discharge death compared to similar infants born at level III hospitals, according to a recent Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)study.
Lead study author Sarah Lasswell, MPH, and colleagues at the Rollins School of Public Health conducted a large-scale analysis of previous research to examine the relationship between hospital level at birth and neonatal (generally the first four weeks after birth) or pre-discharge mortality for VLBW (weighing 53 ounces or less) and VPT (32 weeks or less gestation) infants to determine the importance of level of care at birth to survival.
Lasswell and colleagues found that VLBW infants born in non-level III hospitals had a 62 percent increase in odds of neonatal/pre-discharge death compared with VLBW infants born in level III hospitals. In addition, VPT infants born in lower-level hospitals had a 55 percent increase in odds of neonatal/pre-discharge mortality compared with those born in level III facilities.
â€œThe results of this review confirm a primary premise on which perinatal regionalization systems are based: high-risk infants have higher mortality rates when born outside hospitals with the most specialized levels of care,â€ Lasswell and colleagues write.
â€œStrengthening perinatal regionalization systems in states with high percentages of VLBW and VPT infants born outside of level III centers could potentially save thousands of infant lives every year.â€
About 13 million babies are born prematurely every year â€“ nearly 10 percent of all newborns â€“ and more than 1 million premature babies die each year, according to the March of Dimes.
Having a newborn and managing all that comes with caring for that new little one is a big job. Add to that frequent trips to the ophthalmologist following a cataract surgeryâ€”yes, cataract surgery on a babyâ€”and you might have highly stressed parents. But the parents of little James and slightly older M.J. seem unfazed by all the medical appointments and additional duties that go along with caring for their young sons.
M.J. Burkett and James Weeks became patients in the IATS trial, which has treated 114 babies across the United States.
Both the boys, like 300 babies each year in the United States, were born with a cataract in one eye. In an infant, if the affected eye isnâ€™t surgically addressed within the first few months of life, that eye will not develop properly and vision can be permanently lost. These boys and their parents and 112 other young patients and their families have participated in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS), a nationwide, multi-center clinical trial based at the Emory Eye Center. The 10-year study will evaluate whether replacing that lost lens with a contact lens or an intraocular lens (IOL) is preferable.
Adults typically get an IOL implant following cataract surgery. In the past, standard treatment was a contact lens for these babies. IATS randomized children into two groups: those who received IOL implants and those who received contact lenses. Those with IOLs also received glasses for residual vision correction. And both groups had daily patching of the unaffected eye to make sure that the newly corrected eye could become strong.
A team of professionals from Emory and beyond came together to provide the many layers of data necessary for the study. They included experts from the Rollins School of Public Health and the Department of Epidemiology and Data Coordinating Center in the Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, as well as a visual acuity tester from the University of Alabama, Birmingham, who traveled to all sites to check these children.
A study published online Aug. 4, 2010, by the journal Pediatrics found that prescription and over-the-counter drugs are the leading cause of accidental poisonings among American children.
Each year, more than 71,000 U.S. children ages 18 and younger are seen in emergency rooms for unintentional overdoses of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, according to the study authors.
More than two-thirds of emergency department visits are due to poisoning from prescription and over-the-counter medications — that’s more than double the rate of childhood poisonings caused by household cleaning products, plants and the like, the researchers noted.
Robert Geller, MD, Emory professor of pediatrics and medical director of the Georgia Poison Control Center
“The number of children seen in the emergency room due to overdoses that are unintentional or medication errors is remarkable,” says Robert Geller, MD, professor of pediatrics in the Emory University School of Medicine and medical director of the Georgia Poison Center, who was not a part of the study.
The study team used 2004 and 2005 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System to estimate the number of emergency department visits resulting from unintentional medication overdoses for children aged 18 and younger.
The most common medications accidentally taken by children are acetaminophen, opioids or benzodiazepines, cough and cold medicines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antidepressants, researchers found.
Geller says the study highlights the growing need to improve packaging to cut the number of cases of unintended ingestion.
“If you could make it harder for a kid who came upon a package to get the contents of the package, it would make it more likely they would never need to go to the emergency room,” Geller noted.
A study published in the May 17, 2010, issue of the journal Pediatrics found that one type of pesticide commonly used on fruits and vegetables may be contributing to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, in children.
The study measured the levels of pesticide byproducts in the urine of 1,139 children from across the United States. Children with the highest concentration of pesticides in their urine were more likely to have symptoms of ADHD.
Barr says while the study doesnâ€™t prove causality between pesticide exposures and ADHD, it does shed light on how even low level daily exposures to pesticides could potentially impact cognitive health.
â€œIt seems very plausible that low-level daily exposures to pesticides can produce some subtle effects like ADHD or other neurological delays,â€ she says.
Barr notes that additional research is needed to confirm a connection to pesticides and ADHD, but says there are tips for limiting your exposure to commonly used pesticides.
â€œWeâ€™ve done studies here at Emory and also at CDC that have indicated that if you use organic food or if you wash your food properly prior to preparation, you can reduce the levels of these metabolites in your urine.Â Eat as much organic produce as possible, or wash your fruits and vegetables very well and that likely could decrease the chances of your children developing ADHD,â€ says Barr.
Are you one of 50 million Americans who suffer from allergies? Allergies are the fifth-leading chronic disease in the U.S. among all ages, and the third most common chronic disease among children under age 18, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.
Allergy is characterized by an overreaction of the human immune system to a foreign protein substance (â€œallergenâ€) that is eaten, breathed into the lungs, injected or touched. This immune overreaction can result in symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose and scratchy throat. In severe cases it can also result in rashes, hives, lower blood pressure, difficulty breathing, asthma attacks, and even death.
In a series of new videos, Emory University pediatric allergist and immunologist Karen DeMuth, MD, discusses seasonal allergies, allergy triggers, coping methods, treatments and common allergy myths.
In another video series, DeMuth explores the link between asthma and allergies and the impact of air pollution on people with asthma.
DeMuth is an assistant professor of pediatrics in the Emory School of Medicine.Â She practices at the Emory-Children’s Center and Childrenâ€™s Healthcare of Atlanta.
Physicians and researchers are seeing a resurgence of micronutrient deficiencies in certain high-risk populations of children. But what exactly does that mean to those childrenâ€”right now and in the future?
For children who donâ€™t get enough micronutrients it means life-long problems, including decreased neurodevelopment and diminished cognitive abilities.
â€œMicronutrients are nutrients that are needed by the body in small quantities and are important for development, growth and sustaining life,â€ says Conrad Cole, MD, MPH, assistant professor of pediatrics in the Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Emory School of Medicine. â€œThatâ€™s why theyâ€™re called micronutrients, and the ones we commonly think about are iron, vitamin D, calcium and zinc because they all have significant importance.â€
To listen to Coleâ€™s own words about micronutrients, access Emory’s new Sound Science podcast.
Vision loss can affect oneâ€™s daily function and quality of life (QOL), but few research studies have actually looked at the impact of visual impairments on childrenâ€™s quality of life.
An Emory project aims to develop an instrument that will measure the effect of vision loss on the quality of life of children age 8 to 18.
Pictured from left to right: J. Devn Cornish, MD, professor and vice chair, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine; Andy Lovas, grand recorder, Knights Templar Eye Foundation; Sheila Angeles-Han, MD, MSc, assistant professor, Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine; Larry Vogler, MD, division chief, Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine; and Tim Taylor, director of marketing, Knights Templar Eye Foundation
The project is being led by Emory pediatric rheumatologist Sheila Angeles-Han, MD, MSc. Han recently received a $40,000 grant from the Knights Templar Eye Foundation to augment her work in this area. She is collaborating with pediatric ophthalmologists at the Emory Eye Center.
Currently, there are no validated questionnaires or tools to determine how children in these age groups cope with their visual impairments and the impact of vision loss on their daily lives. This knowledge can enhance physiciansâ€™ understanding of diseases that affect vision.