Tracing the start of COVID-19 in GA

At a time when COVID-19 appears to be receding in much of Georgia, it’s worth revisiting the start of the pandemic in early 2020. Emory virologist Anne Piantadosi and colleagues have a paper in Viral Evolution on the earliest SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequences detected in Georgia. Analyzing relationships between those virus sequences and samples from other states and countries can give us an idea about where the first COVID-19 infections in Georgia came from. We can draw Read more

Reddit as window into opioid withdrawal strategies

Drug abuse researchers are using the social media site Reddit as a window into the experiences of people living with opioid addiction. Abeed Sarker in Emory's Department of Biomedical Informatics has a paper in Clinical Toxicology focusing on the phenomenon of “precipitated withdrawal,” in collaboration with emergency medicine specialists from Penn, Rutgers and Mt Sinai. Precipitated withdrawal is a more intense form of withdrawal that can occur when someone who was using opioids starts medication-assisted treatment Read more

CROI: HIV cure report and ongoing research

The big news out of CROI (Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections) was a report of a third person being cured of HIV infection, this time using umbilical cord blood for a hematopoetic stem cell transplant. Emory’s Carlos del Rio gave a nice overview of the achievement for NPR this morning. As del Rio explains, the field of HIV cure research took off over the last decade after Timothy Brown, known as “the Berlin patient,” Read more

PD1

2B4: potential immune target for sepsis survival

Emory immunologists have identified a potential target for treatments aimed at reducing mortality in sepsis, an often deadly reaction to infection.

2B4 is an inhibitory molecule found on immune cells. You may have heard of PD1, which cancer immunotherapy drugs block in order to re-energize the immune system. 2B4 appears to be similar; it appears on exhausted T cells after chronic viral infection, and its absence can contribute to autoimmunity.

In their new paper in Journal of Immunology, Mandy Ford, Craig Coopersmith and colleagues show that 2B4 levels are increased on certain types of T cells (CD4+ memory cells) in human sepsis patients and in a mouse model of sepsis called CLP (cecal ligation + puncture). Genetically knocking out 2B4 or blocking it with an antibody both reduce mortality in the CLP model. The effect of the knockout is striking: 82 percent survival vs 13 percent for controls.

How does it work? When fighting sepsis, 2B4 knockout animals don’t have reduced bacterial levels, but they do seem to have CD4+ T cels that survive better. CD4+ T cells, especially memory cells, get killed in large numbers during sepsis, and this is thought to contribute to mortality. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment