Engineered “stealth bomber” virus could be new weapon against metastatic cancer

Researchers at Emory and Case Western Reserve have re-engineered a cancer-killing virus, so that it is not easily caught by parts of the immune system. Read more

Another side to cancer immunotherapy? Emory scientists investigate intratumoral B cells

B cells represent the other major arm of the adaptive immune system, besides T cells, and could offer opportunities for new treatments against some kinds of Read more

Don’t go slippery on me, tRNA

RNA can both carry genetic information and catalyze chemical reactions, but it’s too wobbly to accurately read the genetic code by itself. Enzymatic modifications of transfer RNAs – the adaptors that implement the genetic code by connecting messenger RNA to protein – are important to stiffen and constrain their interactions. Biochemist Christine Dunham’s lab has a recent paper in eLife showing a modification on a proline tRNA prevents the tRNA and mRNA from slipping out Read more

Nadine Rouphael

Saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing

As the Atlanta area recovers from Zeta, we’d like to highlight this Journal of Clinical Microbiology paper about saliva-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. It was a collaboration between the Hope Clinic and investigators at Johns Hopkins, led by epidemiologist Christopher Heaney.

Infectious disease specialists Matthew Collins, Nadine Rouphael and several colleagues from Emory are co-authors. They organized the collection of saliva and blood samples from Emory COVID-19 patients at several stages: being tested, hospitalized, and recovered. Saliva samples were collected by having participants brush their gum line with a sponge-like collection device. More convenient than obtaining blood or sticking a swab up the nose!

Saliva collection instrument

The paper shows that antiviral antibody levels in saliva parallel what’s happening in patients’ blood. However, some forms of antibodies (IgM) appear less in saliva because of their greater molecular size. People who test positive do so by 10 days after symptom onset.

The authors conclude: “Saliva-based assays can be used to detect prior SARS-CoV-2 infection with excellent sensitivity and specificity and represent a practical, non-invasive alternative to blood for COVID-19 antibody testing…  A logical next step would be to perform a head-to-head comparison of this novel saliva assay with other antibody tests approved for clinical use.”

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Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment

Hope Clinic part of push to optimize HIV vaccine components

Ten years ago, the results of the RV144 trial– conducted in Thailand with the help of the US Army — re-energized the HIV vaccine field, which had been down in the dumps. It was the first vaccine clinical trial to ever demonstrate any efficacy in preventing HIV. The Hope Clinic of Emory Vaccine Center has been involved in efforts to build on the RV144 trial’s promising results. These early-stage studies have been optimizing the best vaccine components and techniques for larger vaccine efficacy trials, some of which are now underway.

Nadine Rouphael, interim director of the Hope Clinic, was first author on a recent paper in Journal of Clinical Investigation, reporting a multi-center study from the HIV Vaccine Trials Network. HVTN is headquartered at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle and supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

“Our study shows that there are tools available to us now to improve on the immunogenicity seen in RV144, which may lead to better efficacy in future field trials,” Rouphael says. (See statement on the HVTN 105 study here.) Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment