AÂ Emory News item on a helpful part of the microbiome focuses on how the same type of bacteria â€“ lactobacilli â€“ activates the same ancient signaling pathway in intestinal cells in both insects and mammals.Â It continues a line of research from Rheinallt Jones and Andrew Neish on how beneficial bacteria stimulate wound healing by activating ROS (reactive oxygen species).
Asma Nusrat, MD
A idea behind this research is: if we know what parts of the bacteria stimulate healing, perhaps doctors can deliverÂ that material, or something very close, to patients directly to treat intestinal diseases such as Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis.
This ideaÂ has advanced experimentally, as demonstrated byÂ twoÂ papers from Jones and Neishâ€™s frequent collaborator, Asma Nusrat, who recently moved from Emory to the University of Michigan. This team had shown that a protein produced by human intestinal cells called annexin A1 activates ROS, acting through the same N-formyl peptide receptors that bacteria do.
Nusrat told me Friday her team began investigatingÂ annexins a decade ago at Emory, and it was fortuitous that Neish was working on beneficial bacteria right down the hall, since it is now apparent that annexin A1 and the bacteria areÂ activating the same molecular signals.Â (Did you know there is an entire conference devoted to annexins? I didn’t until a few days ago.)
In aÂ secondÂ Journal of Clinical Investigation paper published this February, NusratÂ and herÂ colleagues show that intestinal cells release vesicles containing annexin A1 following injury. The wound closure-promoting effects of these vesicles can be mimicked with nanoparticles containing annexin A1. The nanoparticles incorporate a form of collagen, which targets them to injured intestinal tissue. Read more
At what point did the human microbiome become such a hot topic?
When it was shown that babies born by Cesarean section are colonized with different bacteria than those born vaginally? With the cardiovascular studies of microbial byproducts of meat digestion? With the advent of fecal transplant as a proposed treatment for Clostricium difficile infection?
The bacteria and other microbes that live within the human body are thought to influence not only digestive health, but metabolic and autoimmune diseases as well, possibly even psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The field is being propelled by next-generation sequencing technology, and Nature had to publish an editorial guarding against hype (a major theme: correlation is not causation).
At Emory, investigators from several departments are involved in microbiome-related work, and the number is expanding, and assembling a comprehensive list is becoming more difficult. Researchers interested in the topic are planning Emory’s first microbiome symposium in November, organized by Jennifer Mulle (read her intriguing review on autism spectrum disorders and the microbiome).
Microbial genomics expert Tim Read, infectious diseases specialist Colleen Kraft and intestinal pathologist Andrew Neish have formed an Emory microbiome interest group with a listserv and seminars.
Microbiome symposium sponsors: ACTSI, Hercules Exposome Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Omega Biotek, CFDE, Ubiome. Read more
Alzheimer’s protein pathology
While a wise Dane once proposed that predictions are dangerous, especially concerningÂ the future, it’s usuallyÂ helpful to plan ahead. Here are five biomedical research topicsÂ we think will occupy our attention in 2015.
1. Alzheimer’s Weâ€™re hearing discordant music coming from Alzheimerâ€™s researchers. Large pharmaceutical companies are shutting down clinical trials in frustration, but researchers keep coming forward with biomarkers that mightÂ predict future disease. This confusing situation calls for some new thinking. Allan Levey, Jim Lah and colleagues have been preparing the way for a â€œbeyond the usual suspectsâ€ look at Alzheimerâ€™s disease. We are looking forward to Leveyâ€™s appearance at the 2015 AAAS meeting and to drug discovery wizard Keqiang Yeâ€™s continuing work on new therapeutic targets.
2. Ebola While the scare over Ebola in the United States may be over (we hope so!), the outbreak continues to devastate countriesÂ in West Africa. Clinical trials testingÂ vaccines and experimental drugs are underway or will be soon. Read more