Mouse version of 3q29 deletion: insights into schizophrenia/ASD pathways

Emory researchers see investigating 3q29 deletion as a way of unraveling schizophrenia’s biological and genetic Read more

B cells off the rails early in lupus

Emory scientists could discern that in people with SLE, signals driving expansion and activation are present at an earlier stage of B cell differentiation than previously Read more

Head to head narcolepsy/hypersomnia study

At the sleep research meeting in San Antonio this year, there were signs of an impending pharmaceutical arms race in the realm of narcolepsy. The big fish in a small pond, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, was preparing to market its recently FDA-approved medication: Sunosi/solriamfetol. Startup Harmony Biosciences was close behind with pitolisant, already approved in Europe. On the horizon are experimental drugs designed to more precisely target the neuropeptide deficiency in people with classic narcolepsy type 1 Read more

lung cancer

Detecting Lung Cancer at a Higher Rate

The findings from a recent study show the risk of dying from lung cancer could be reduced by 20 percent by use of a low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan.  With 160,000 deaths each year related to cigarette smoking, this type of screening could save up to 32,000 lives each year.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) launched the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) in 2002,  led at Emory by radiologist and researcher Dr. Kay Vydareny.  This trial compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical (spiral) computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray, for their effects on lung cancer death rates in a high-risk population.

Both chest X-rays and helical CT scans have been used as a means to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. Over a 20-month period, more than 53,000 current or former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74 joined NLST at 33 study sites across the United States. In November 2010, the initial findings from NLST were released. Participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20 percent lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

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Posted on by Lance Skelly in Uncategorized Leave a comment

Lung cancer clinical trial shows treatment promise

Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a challenging disease to treat. More than 200,000 new cases of lung cancer are diagnosed each year, and 85 percent to 90 percent of diagnosed lung cancers fall into the non-small cell type.

A new strategy for treating NSCLC that increases the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced stage disease has been found by Emory researchers. Recent advances in treatment result in improvement in patient survival noted for all stages of NSCLC.

Saresh Ramalingam, MD

Saresh Ramalingam, MD

Lead investigator Suresh Ramalingam, MD, associate professor of hematology and medical oncology at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, along with a consortium of academic institutions that is supported by the National Cancer Institute, published the positive results in The Journal of Clinical Oncology.

In the clinical trial, Emory scientists added a cancer-fighting compound that is used to treat a specific type of lymphoma to standard lung cancer chemotherapy, resulting in an increase in positive response rates in NSCLC patients.

The addition of vorinostat, a compound that affects the function and activity of DNA and various other proteins, to standard chemotherapy treatment of carboplatin and paclitaxel, increased positive response rates in patients from 12.5 percent to 34 percent in a clinical trial of 94 patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

Vorinostat may be affecting histones, which are spool-like proteins around which the cell’s DNA is wound. These proteins are important for cell division. We believe these molecular effects could enhance the efficacy of carboplatin and paclitaxel, respectively.

Vorinostat is part of an emerging class of anti-tumor agents that interfere with enzymes known as histone deacetylases (HDAC). Inhibiting these enzymes increases the level of acetylation, a modification of proteins in the cell. Vorinostat is sold by Merck as Zolinza and was approved by the FDA in 2006 to treat cutaneous T cell lymphoma.

Ramalingam says this exciting data will have to be further evaluated in confirmatory phase III studies before they can be adopted in routine use. However, HDAC inhibitors can now be considered among the leading targeted agents under evaluation for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

Posted on by Vince Dollard in Cancer Leave a comment