Life-saving predictions from the ICU

Similar to the “precogs” who predict crime in the movie Minority Report, but for sepsis, the deadly response to infection. Read more

Five hot projects at Emory in 2017

Five hot projects at Emory in 2017: CRISPR gene editing for HD, cancer immunotherapy mechanics, memory enhancement, Zika immunology, and antivirals from Read more

Shaking up thermostable proteins

Imagine a shaker table, where kids can assemble a structure out of LEGO bricks and then subject it to a simulated earthquake. Biochemists face a similar task when they are attempting to design thermostable proteins, with heat analogous to shaking. Read more

Jeffrey Koplan

Emory experts weigh in on obesity at AACC Annual Meeting

The obesity epidemic took center stage at this year’s American Association of Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. Several Emory experts took the podium to further explore obesity not only as a public health problem, but also as an issue that is changing the way we diagnose diseases and treat health issues in children.

Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH

Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH, director of the Emory Global Health Institute, led one of the meeting’s plenary sessions, emphasizing that obesity must be fought with changes in both public policy and personal decision-making. Koplan also noted that strategies to address obesity must be localized to fit each community because eating and exercise habits are often culturally specific.

Rising rates of obesity also are changing the way physicians and researchers define and diagnose certain diseases, including metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors including insulin resistance, high blood pressure, cholesterol abnormalities and an increased risk for clotting. The common thread among patients with metabolic syndrome is that they are often overweight or obese.

Ross Molinaro, PhD

Pathologist Ross Molinaro, PhD, medical director of the Core Laboratory at Emory University Hospital Midtown and co-director of the Emory Clinical Translational Research Laboratory, presented insights into the important role of lab testing in the definition and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome.  In addition to new markers, Molinaro addressed the global prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the evolving criteria for diagnosis.

Miriam Vos, MD, MSPH

Responding to their members’ demand for more information on how obesity affects children, the AACC hosted a full-day symposium on pediatric obesity and related health complications such as diabetes and high blood pressure.  Miriam Vos, MD, MSPH, assistant professor of pediatrics in  Emory School of Medicine and a physician at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta described non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as an increasingly common complication of childhood obesity that can cause inflammation and scarring of the liver.

Stephanie Walsh, MD

Stephanie Walsh, MD, assistant professor of pediatrics in Emory School of Medicine and medical director of child wellness at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, leads Children’s efforts in preventing and treating childhood obesity in Georgia, which currently has the second highest rate of childhood obesity in the country. Walsh addressed the effect of Children’s wellness initiative, called Strong4Life, on childhood obesity prevention in Georgia.

“From those in the lab, to those in clinic, to those who strategize and implement public health campaigns, we’re all going to need to work together to protect our children’s future,” says Walsh.

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China-U.S. health care forum highlights similarities, challenges, solutions

The recent Westlake Forum III at Emory brought more than 250 leaders from Chinese and U.S. academic and government institutions together to examine and compare health care reform in the two countries, focusing on cost, quality, and access to care.

“This was an incredible human partnership, bringing together two countries with very different governments and cultures, recognizing our common problems and desires for improved health of all our citizens, working together on difficult issues and exploring workable solutions,” said Jeff Koplan, director of the Emory Global Health Institute.

The third Westlake Forum was the first to be held in the United States. It was co-hosted by the Emory Global Health Institute, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, and the China Medical Board.

Shanlian Hu, William Roper, William Hsaio, Jeffrey Koplan, Kenneth Thorpe

“Now China and the US are facing the same challenge: to push healthcare reform forward. Our two countries need to share knowledge and experiences with each other, and to learn from each other,” says Yu Hai, MD, PhD, director of China Medical Board Programs, Zhejiang University School of Medicine.

Howard Koh, assistant secretary for health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, presented an overview of U.S. health care reform.

Shanlian Hu, a professor at Fudan University, described China’s health care reform priorities: expanded coverage, equal access, improved benefits, improved care delivery systems and containment of soaring medical costs. These are remarkably similar to priorities of the recent U.S. Affordable Care Act.

In China, the government is committed to health care as a public good, with the goal of complete coverage by 2020. Although 90 percent of citizens are currently covered, cost and accessibility varies considerably. Hospital stays are longer than in the United States, medical training is less rigorous, and access to high-quality care is limited. As in the U.S., China’s public hospitals and providers struggle with the economic and quality issues generated by a “fee-for-service” reimbursement mechanism.

Participants worked on developing concrete collaborations such as joint research, educational exchanges or partnerships.

Yet health care costs in China are only 5.13 percent of the country’s GDP, compared to 17 percent in the U.S.

William Roper, dean of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine and CEO of the UNC Health System, said health care in the United States is a “paradox of excess and deprivation,” and Americans need to rethink their long-held assumptions.

Americans believe they have the best health care system in the world, yet we spend more on medical care than any other country, we are the only rich democracy in which a substantial portion of citizens lack care, nurses are in short supply, quality and safety are not as high as they should be, and incentives for physicians are skewed toward specialization and expensive technical procedures, Roper said.

Harvard Professor William Hsiao noted that China has made significant progress in health care reform over the past seven years. In 2003, 75 percent of Chinese citizens were uninsured, whereas today China offers coverage on some level to 90 percent, with out-of-pocket payments continuing to decline. Problems persist in lack of well-trained physicians and equipment, distorted prices, and profit motives of public hospitals and officials.

Ken Thorpe, from Emory’s Rollins School of Public Health, outlined the newly passed U.S. health reform law, which aims to expand and improve coverage and access to quality care and control rising costs. Many of these improvements would likely be paid through Medicare reductions and increased taxes on higher income households, he said.


 

 

 

 

 

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March madness: National global health case competition features 13 universities

March Madness of a different flavor overtook Emory University March 18-19 as more than 200 students, judges, observers and staff convened for the first national Emory Global Health Case Competition.

The competition involved 20 teams of five students each, representing at least three academic disciplines per team. Emory fielded eight teams, and 12 teams came from leading universities across the country: Dartmouth, Princeton, Penn, Cornell, Yeshiva, Duke, Vanderbilt, UAB, USC, UCSF, Rice, and Texas A&M. All these universities are members of the Consortium of Universities for Global Health.

The first-place team, from Emory (l-r): Jason Myers, Candler School of Theology; Abdul Wahab Shaikh, Goizueta Business School; Stephanie Stawicki, Laney Graduate School; Andrew K. Stein, Goizueta Business School; Jenna Blumenthal, Laney Graduate School; Krista Bauer (judge), GE director of global programs; Meridith Mikulich, School of Nursing (not pictured)

As in two past local and regional case competitions, this year’s event was student initiated, developed, planned, staffed and conducted.

This year’s signature sponsor was GE, with additional sponsorship from Douglas and Barbara Engmann, and internal Emory funding.

“Global health continues to grow as a primary interest of students at universities across the United States, and the Emory Global Health Case Competition has gained a reputation as the leading national team event to showcase the creativity, passion, and intellect of our future leaders in global health,” says Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH, director of the Emory Global Health Institute.

The Feb. 17, 2011 issue of The Lancet included an article by Koplan and Mohammed K. Ali, assistant professor of global health at Rollins School of Public Health on the benefits of problem-based competitions to promote global health in universities.

Teams worked through the night on Friday for their Saturday morning presentations. The case involved a proposal for improving conditions in several East African refugee camps in the face of a severe budget cut. Judges were blinded to the academic affiliations of the teams, but Emory won the top two prizes (first prize was $5,000). UCSF and Dartmouth received honorable mentions, and Rice was given an innovation award.

 

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Tobacco free cities project aims to curb smoking in China

Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH

Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH, director of the Emory Global Health Institute and vice president for Global Health at Emory University, is leading the second phase of the Tobacco Free Cities project in China, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project, which launched in 10 Chinese cities this week, is a partnership with the ThinkTank Research Center for Health Development in Beijing.

Vice mayors of each of the 10 cities signed an official pledge to strive to create tobacco-free cities for residents. China has more than 300 million smokers, the most of any country, and more than 500 million people in China are exposed to secondhand smoke.

“The two-year project aims to enhance the overall capacity in smoking-tobacco control of the cities and help ease the burden caused by tobacco to public health, the environment and the economy,” Koplan says in an article in China Daily.

The project launch was covered by other major Chinese news outlets, including Xinhua News Agency.

The first phase of the Tobacco Free Cities project launched in June 2009 in seven Chinese cities. The project is part of the Emory Global Health Institute-China Tobacco Partnership. In January 2009 Emory University received a $14 million, five-year grant from the Gates Foundation to establish the partnership.

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WHO Director Chan highlights global health changes, challenges

Dr. Margaret Chan

On World TB Day, March 16, Dr. Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization, addressed public health professionals at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta at the eighth annual Jeffrey P. Koplan Global Leadership in Public Health Lecture. In introducing Chan, Koplan noted their long-term friendship, which grew from their work together in China.

While in Atlanta, Chan also visited Emory to meet with President James Wagner and Emory Global Health Institute Director Koplan. She heard presentations about global health field projects by students in public health, medicine, and theology.

Chan recalled the “lost decade for development,” the 1980s, a dismal time for public health. The 1979 energy crisis followed by a recession made for tighter public health resources and few health care improvements worldwide, she explained. Some developing countries have still not recovered.

In contrast, public health has faired better in the new millennium, when the world has benefited from financial commitments backed by substantial resources, often from innovative sources, says Chan.
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Hong Kong is Bright Spot of Tobacco Control in China

Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH

A remarkably successful 20-year program of tobacco control in Hong Kong can serve as a best-practices example for China and other nations, says Jeffrey Koplan in an article published online today in The Lancet. Koplan is vice president for global health at Emory and director of the Emory Global Health Institute.

Hong Kong’s successful tobacco control program began with a 1982 health ordinance launching a multi-step approach including legislative amendments (regulation of indoor smoking, pack warnings, ban on tobacco advertising), a steeply increased tobacco tax, school-based education, mass-media campaigns, community events, and leadership from the medical community.

Smoking prevalence in Hong Kong fell from 23.3 percent in 1982 to 11.8 percent in 2008 through the efforts of the Tobacco Control office of the Department of Health and NGOs such as the Hong Kong Council on Smoking and Health.

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Reducing tobacco consumption through taxes

Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH

In many countries, taxes on tobacco have successfully reduced its consumption. As world leaders in countries consider raising the excise tax on tobacco products in the coming year, it is vital they consider all the determinants that effectively promote health through taxation, say Emory global health experts Jeffrey Koplan, MD, MPH, and Mohammed Ali, MBChB, MSc.

Koplan and Ali discuss the complex issues of health promotion and tobacco taxation in a commentary in the current issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, “Promoting Health Through Tobacco Taxation.”

Mohammed K. Ali, MBChB, MSc

“Effective and comprehensive tobacco control involves a broad mixture of interventions – scientific, behavioral, educational, legal, regulatory, environmental, and economic,” say Koplan, former Emory vice president for global health and former CDC director, and Ali, assistant professor, Hubert Department of Global Health at Emory’s Rollins School of Public Health.


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