I3 Venture awards info

Emory is full of fledgling biomedical proto-companies. Some of them are actual corporations with employees, while others are ideas that need a push to get them to that point. Along with the companies highlighted by the Emory Biotech Consulting Club, Dean Sukhatme’s recent announcement of five I3 Venture research awards gives more examples of early stage research projects with commercial potential. This is the third round of the I3 awards; the first two were Wow! Read more

Take heart, Goldilocks -- and get more sleep

Sleeping too little or too much increases the risk of cardiovascular events and death in those with coronary artery disease, according to a new paper from Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute. Others have observed a similar U-shaped risk curve in the general population, with respect to sleep duration. The new study, published in American Journal of Cardiology, extends the finding to people who were being evaluated for coronary artery disease. Arshed Quyyumi, MD and colleagues analyzed Read more

Repurposing a transplant drug for bone growth

The transplant immunosuppressant drug FK506, also known as tacrolimus or Prograf, can stimulate bone formation in both cell culture and animal Read more

Jeannie Visootsak

Point mutation in fragile X gene reveals separable functions in brain

A new paper in PNAS from geneticist Steve Warren and colleagues illustrates the complexity of the protein disrupted in fragile X syndrome. It touches on how proposed drug therapies that address one aspect of fragile X syndrome may not be able to compensate for all of them. [For a human side of this story, read/listen to this recent NPR piece from Jon Hamilton.]

Fragile X syndrome is the most common single-gene disorder responsible for intellectual disability. Most patients with fragile X syndrome inherit it because a repetitive stretch of DNA, which is outside the protein-coding portion of the fragile X gene, is larger than usual. The expanded number of CGG repeats silences the entire gene.

However, simple point mutations affecting the fragile X protein are possible in humans as well. In the PNAS paper, Warren’s team describes what happens with a particularly revealing mutation, which allowed researchers to dissect fragile X protein’s multifaceted functions. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment

Fragile X clinical trial update

A recent issue of Emory Health magazine had an article describing the progress of clinical trials for fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. The article included interviews with the parents of a boy, Samuel McKinnon, who is participating in one of the phase III clinical trials here at Emory.

Last week, results for the phase II study for the same medication were published in Science Translational Medicine. The drug, called STX209 or arbaclofen, is one of the first designed to treat the molecular changes in the brain caused by fragile X syndrome. STX209 shows some promise in its ability to reduce social withdrawal, a key symptom of fragile X syndrome.

In one case, a boy was able to attend his birthday party for the first time in his life. In the past, he had been too shy and couldn’t tolerate hearing people sing Happy Birthday to You, the study’s lead author Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, MD, PhD from Rush University, told USA Today.

These results have generated excitement among autism researchers and specialists, because a fraction of individuals with fragile X mutations have autism and the same drug strategy may be able to address deficits in other forms of autism.

Some caveats:
1. Autism and fragile X are not the same thing.
2. This was a phase II study, the phase III results are yet to come.
3. The study authors are up front about saying that the “primary endpoint” (irritability) showed no difference between drug and placebo.

A team led by Emory genetics chair Steve Warren identified the gene responsible for fragile X in 1991, and Emory scientists have been important players in figuring out its effects on the brain.

Warren and colleague Mika Kinoshita are co-authors on a companion paper in STM on treatment of fragile X mice. A thoughtful review piece in the same issue of STM lays out current issues in developing therapies for “childhood disorders of the synapse.”

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment