Beyond the amyloid hypothesis: proteins that indicate cognitive stability

If you’re wondering where Alzheimer’s research might be headed after the latest large-scale failure of a clinical trial based on the “amyloid hypothesis,” check this Read more

Mother's milk is OK, even for the in-between babies

“Stop feeding him milk right away – just to be safe” was not what a new mother wanted to hear. The call came several days after Tamara Caspary gave birth to fraternal twins, a boy and a girl. She and husband David Katz were in the period of wonder and panic, both recovering and figuring out how to care for them. “A nurse called to ask how my son was doing,” says Caspary, a developmental Read more

Focus on mitochondria in schizophrenia research

Despite advances in genomics in recent years, schizophrenia remains one of the most complex challenges of both genetics and neuroscience. The chromosomal abnormality 22q11 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge syndrome, offers a way in, since it is one of the strongest genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Out of dozens of genes within the 22q11 deletion, several encode proteins found in mitochondria. A team of Emory scientists, led by cell biologist Victor Faundez, recently analyzed Read more

Emory Integrated Proteomics Core

Beyond the amyloid hypothesis: proteins that indicate cognitive stability

If you’re wondering where Alzheimer’s research might be headed after the latest large-scale failure of a clinical trial based on the “amyloid hypothesis,” check this out.

Plaques. Tangles. Clumps. These are all pathological signs of neurodegenerative diseases that scientists can see under the microscope. But they don’t explain most of the broader trends of cognitive resilience or decline in aging individuals. What’s missing?

A recent proteomics analysis in Nature Communications from Emory researchers identifies key proteins connected with cognitive trajectory – meaning the rate at which someone starts to decline and develop mild cognitive impairment or dementia.

This paper fits in with the multi-year push for “unbiased” Alzheimer’s/aging research at Emory. The lead and senior authors are Aliza and Thomas Wingo, with proteomics from biochemist Nick Seyfried and company.

The proteins the Emory team spotlights are not the usual suspects that scientists have been grinding on for years in the Alzheimer’s field, such as beta-amyloid and tau. They’re proteins connected with cellular energy factories (mitochondria) or with synapses, the connections between brain cells.

“Our most notable finding is that proteins involving mitochondrial activities or synaptic functions had increased abundance among individuals with cognitive stability regardless of the burden of β-amyloid plaques or neurofibrillary tangles,” the authors write. “Taken together, our findings and others highlight that mitochondrial activities would be a fruitful research target for early prevention of cognitive decline and enhancement of cognitive stability.” Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment

Proteomics making fantastic routine

Much of basic biomedical research concerns proteins. The enzymes that keep cells running, the regulators and receptors that control what our cells do, the antibodies that defend us against invaders — all of these are proteins.

That means every day, scientists are asking questions like:

What’s happening to my favorite protein? Is there more or less of it in this sample? What other proteins work with it or stick to it?

That’s where a proteomics core facility comes in. Given a mixture of hundreds or even thousands of proteins, proteomics specialists can separate, identify and quantify them.Proteomics1smaller

Researchers in the areas of Alzheimer’s disease, cancer metabolism, schizophrenia and vaccines all make use of Emory’s proteomics core facility. It was key to the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center’s 2013 discovery of a new form of Alzheimer’s disease protein pathology.

Director Nick Seyfried reports that the core has acquired close to $3 million in sophisticated mass spectrometry equipment in the last few years. The Emory Integrated Proteomics Core, one of the Emory Integrated Core Facilities, is supported in part by the Winship Cancer Institute, the Atlanta Clinical and Translational Science Institute, and a recently renewed grant for ENNCF (Emory Neurosciences NINDS Core Facilities).

Protein mass spectrometry is like Wonkavision

There’s a scene in both the 1971 and 2005 film adaptations of Roald Dahl’s Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, in which a chocolate bar is separated into millions of tiny pieces and sent flying across a clean room. Protein mass spectrometry resembles the first part of this process. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment