Transition to exhaustion: clues for cancer immunotherapy

Research on immune cells “exhausted” by chronic viral infection provides clues on how to refine cancer immunotherapy. The results were published Tuesday, Dec. 3 in Immunity. Scientists at Emory Vaccine Center, led by Rafi Ahmed, PhD, have learned about exhausted CD8 T cells, based on studying mice with chronic viral infections. In the presence of persistent virus or cancer, CD8 T cells lose much of their ability to fight disease, and display inhibitory checkpoint proteins Read more

Radiologists wrestle with robots - ethically

Emory bioethicist John Banja says: don’t believe the hype about AI replacing Read more

Opioids: crunching the Tweets

The aim is to be able to spot patterns of overdoses faster than prescription drug monitoring Read more

Emory Healthcare

NASCAR weekend full of health care success stories

Terry “Mr. 500” Green

This weekend’s slate of racing at the Atlanta Motor Speedway, including the marquee Emory Healthcare 500 NASCAR Sprint Cup race Sunday night, will have a uniquely Emory flavor that exceeds far beyond just the naming rights for the event that will be watched by millions of fans around the country. Emory Healthcare is the official healthcare partner for the Atlanta Motor Speedway and this year’s Emory Healthcare 500 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Race.

Mr. 500

When Emory Healthcare and Atlanta Motor Speedway officials began searching for the grand marshal of this year’s Emory Healthcare 500 Sprint Cup Series race, they didn’t have to search long or far to find the perfect candidate – and one who already possessed the perfect tailor-made nickname for such an occasion.

Lawrenceville native Terry “Mr. 500” Green has been named the grand marshal for this year’s race.

Green first came to be known as “Mr. 500” in March 2008, after he became the 500th heart transplant recipient at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta.

Keeping his motor running

Wayne Reese has been racing motocross and super late model cars on dirt tracks for more than 11 years, and he knows the risks. One risk he won’t take, however, is with his health.

Reese, a prostate cancer survivor, will be the Honorary Starter at the Emory Healthcare 500.  In this role, Reese will drop the Green Flag to start the race.  In addition, his son Brian will drive his Reese Motorsports Super Late Model Number 33 in the pre-race parade.

Reese, 55, recently completed therapy at Emory University Hospital’s Department of Radiation Oncology.  He says he knew he wanted to be treated at Emory because his wife was treated at Emory’s Winship Cancer Institute.  “We appreciate all the help we’ve gotten there.”

Reese recently demonstrated his appreciation by putting the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University logo on his race cars.

Emory’s own pit crew

When more than 150,000 race fans, visitors and support crews flood Atlanta Motor Speedway this Labor Day weekend, they may learn a thing or two about their health – possibly saving their own lives in the process.

Emory Healthcare will bring its own pit crew team of volunteers to Henry County this weekend to provide free health care screenings including:
•    Blood pressure screenings
•    Smoking cessation help and information
•    Head, neck and skin cancer screenings
•    Body Mass Index (BMI) screenings
•    General health and wellness information

“Having this incredible opportunity to reach out to so many men and women to provide potentially life-saving cancer screenings, blood pressure checks, and informative ways to live a longer and healthier life, is a perfect way for us to thank those in our community who have allowed us to serve them over the years, while also supporting this special event that means so much to our region,” says Dane Peterson, chief operating officer for Emory University Hospital Midtown. “At the end of the day, we hope to make a difference in the lives of more than a few individuals and ensure that they will be able to return for many more exciting Labor Day weekends at the Atlanta Motor Speedway.”

Posted on by Lance Skelly in Uncategorized Leave a comment

A concussion is more than just a headache

 

Ken Mautner, MD

To ensure better management of sports concussions, physicians at Emory Sports Medicine Center have incorporated Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) into their program for high school athletes.

 

Concussions occur in about 10 percent of all athletes in contact sports.

They are caused by sudden and violent rocking of the brain inside the skull from a traumatic blow to the head or upper body.

Symptoms vary in length of time and may include amnesia, disorientation, confusion, fogginess, headache, blurred vision, nausea, fatigue and sometimes loss of consciousness.

Ken Mautner, MD, sports medicine physician and assistant professor in the Department of Orthopaedics at Emory University School of Medicine, says that most athletes recover completely from concussions as long as they are not returned back to play too soon.

Repeated concussions are cumulative and may cause critical damage to the brain.  Studies have indicated a possible association with frequent or untreated concussions and development of dementia, depression and, most recently, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease).  Going back to the sport too soon, before the brain recovers, leaves athletes vulnerable to repeat concussions.

Athletes in the ImPACT program take a 20-minuted baseline test on a computer that measures brain processing such as speed, memory, and visual motor skills.

Each individual’s data are stored in a computer file. In the event of injury, the athlete will take the ImPACT test in the days following concussion.  Post-concussion data are then compared to baseline data to help determine the severity and effects of the injury.

Mautner says that data from ImPACT combined with a thorough history and physical exam is the best way to prevent athletes from getting “back in the game” too soon.

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When bone marrow goes bad

Plasma cells live in our bone marrow. Their job: to make antibodies that protect us from bacteria and viruses. But if those plasma cells grow unchecked, that unchecked growth leads to multiple myeloma.

Sagar Lonial, MD

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that results in lytic bone disease, or holes in the bones. What’s more, the cancerous cells crowd out normal bone marrow resulting in anemia or a low white count, leaving a person vulnerable to infections.

Sagar Lonial, MD, an oncologist at Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, treats people with multiple myeloma. The prognosis for people with this type of cancer is poor; however, researchers are gaining on the disease. Twenty years ago, the survival rate was two to three years; now, it’s four to five.

Lonial says one of the keys to improving patients’ prognosis is increasing their enrollment in clinical trials and better access to life-extending drugs.

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Posted on by Robin Tricoles in Cancer Leave a comment

New technology enables precision in jaw reconstruction

Steven Roser, MD

When people have misaligned jaws where the upper and lower teeth don’t match, the functional impact ranges from articulation and speech problems to problems with eating.

When jaw reconstruction is required, the outcome must be precise. The way people eat and bite is a very sensitive mechanism, and teeth have to meet in a certain way in order to bite and chew correctly.

Planning the surgery is the key.

A new system being used by Emory oral and maxillofacial surgeons helps them reach a level of preoperative planning that they had not been able to achieve before.

The system takes data from the patient obtained through CT scan (Computed Tomography) and optical scanning, and puts it into a software program that has been developed to allow the surgery to be performed virtually on the computer. This preoperative planning assists in the construction of an accurate intra-operative guide.

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Heart disease pioneer named ‘Georgia Woman of the Year’

Many people know that heart disease is currently the number one killer of women in the United States. But a little more than a half a century ago it was widely believed that cardiovascular disease only affected men. Renowned cardiologist, Nanette K. Wenger, MD, challenged this theory and thanks to her pioneering efforts over the last 50 years women today know better.

2010 Georgia Woman of the Year, Nanette K. Wenger, MD

Wenger, a professor of medicine in the division of cardiology at Emory University School of Medicine and former chief of cardiology at Grady Memorial Hospital, is being honored as the 2010 Georgia Woman of the Year for her lifetime commitment to reducing women’s disability and death from cardiovascular disease.

She joins the ranks of other distinguished Georgia women including First Lady Rosalynn Carter who was named the first Georgia Woman of the Year in 1996 by the Georgia Commission on Women. In addition to this prestigious accolade, Wenger has accumulated dozens of awards throughout her celebrated career including the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American College of Cardiology in 2009. She is a sought after lecturer for issues related to heart disease in women, heart disease in the elderly, cardiac rehabilitation, coronary prevention and contemporary cardiac care.

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Ventricular Assist Therapy Helping More Heart Failure Patients

After a long battle with congestive heart failure, former Vice President Dick Cheney this month was implanted with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in order to help improve the pumping function of his ailing heart.  Cheney, who has had numerous documented heart problems and hospitalizations, undoubtedly opted to have the small internal heart pump installed in order to help him live a better quality of life, and potentially reduce his hospital visits in the near future.

An LVAD is a battery-operated, mechanical pump that aids the left ventricle in pumping blood into the aorta.  Most commonly, an LVAD is installed to help patients survive the wait until a fully-functioning heart is available for transplant. However, in some cases the LVAD is used as a form of destination therapy (in place of a transplant) for patients who are not candidates for heart transplant. In 2006, surgeons at Emory University Hospital implanted Georgia’s first ventricular assist device (VAD) as destination therapy.

“When offering LVAD destination therapy, our goal is to safely integrate patients back to their respective communities and normal mode of living,” according to David Vega, MD, surgical director of the Emory Heart Transplant Program.

“Ventricular assist devices offer new hope and a much greater quality of life for individuals who are not transplant candidates, patients who do not want a transplant or those who may be transplant eligible in the future.”

According to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) there are more than 3,100 Americans – 34 in Georgia – who are currently awaiting a heart transplant. Regardless of the number of donor hearts available, many patients are not candidates for a heart transplant for a variety of reasons including cancer, personal and religious beliefs, blood clotting problems, and other debilitating health conditions.

“There are approximately five million Americans who suffer from congestive heart failure, with another half million diagnosed each year. Many of these people are limited by the severity of their heart failure, yet are not able to be transplanted for one of many reasons,” adds Dr. Vega. “These devices may be a viable option for many patients, allowing them to resume a much more normal lifestyle and improved quality of living.”

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Alzheimer’s expert weighs in on proposed guidelines

Scans can show beta amyloid, a protein associated with Alzheimer’s disease (right)

For the first time in 25 years, medical experts are proposing new diagnostic criteria aimed at better and earlier detection of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

The guidelines, proposed by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the Alzheimer’s Association, update and revise the current Alzheimer’s criteria with modern technologies and the latest research advances.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, an estimated 5.3 million Americans have AD, most of them 65 and older. The disease is thought to begin years, possibly even decades, before symptoms are noticeable. But there is no single, generally accepted way to identify the disease in its earliest stages before symptoms are evident.

The new diagnostic guidelines focus on advances in detecting biomarkers for the disease, such as substances found in spinal fluid or appearing on cutting-edge brain imaging scans conducted with PET or MRI.

Emphasis will be on diagnosing early stages of the disease as soon as possible so that patients can take measures to slow the progression or prevent further damage.

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Emory University Hospital celebrates 3000th bone marrow transplant


An Emory University Hospital patient recently prepared to celebrate a “birthday” with family, friends and caregivers  – but this was no typical birthday according to any calendar or tradition.

Instead, cheerful songs and celebratory clapping echoed through the halls of the Bone Marrow Transplant Unit at Emory University Hospital, as always when a potentially life-saving bone marrow transplant is about to occur. And the tradition did not stop on May 20, as the unit physicians, nursing staff, patients and hospital administrators gathered to celebrate the 3000th transplant.

Encouraged by Emory’s success, Edmund Waller, MD, PhD, director of Emory’s Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant Center says, “While 3,000 is a nice round number, it’s the middle of a growing and successful program. After 3,000 procedures, I know we all look forward to the future of this program.”

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Pituitary tumors removed using a 3-D endoscope

Although the size of a pea, the pituitary gland, located deep within the skull at the base of the brain, is indispensible.

Known as the master gland, it directs other glands to produce hormones that affect metabolism, blood pressure, sexuality, reproduction, and development and growth, as well as other bodily functions.

Nelson Oyesiku, MD, PhD, on right

So when something goes wrong with the pituitary, such as the development of a tumor, the consequences can be serious, even life threatening. Relatively common, pituitary tumors initially can be difficult to diagnose and, once found, difficult to remove because they are surrounded by so many nerves, such as those that supply the eye with movement and vision and blood vessels that supply the brain with blood.

Emory’s Pituitary Center is one of a handful of medical centers across the country using the latest 3-D endoscope for removal of pituitary tumors, a delicate and precise procedure. Having the new 3-D endoscope is a tremendous aid for a surgeon when operating on a small organ at the base of the brain, says Emory neurosurgeon Nelson Oyesiku, MD, PhD.

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Sports medicine advances reach the masses

Drawing of the knee, courtesy of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

An anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, tear is one of the most common sports injuries, especially in sports that require running, jumping or pivoting movements.

Akin to a fibrous, thick rubber band made of collagen, the ACL runs through the center of the knee and connects the femur to the tibia, allowing the knee to bend and flex—but not too far. When it tears, the knee can become destabilized. So, for anyone who wants to continue to play sports, surgery is required.

Once a narrow subspecialty of orthopaedics with a focus on professional athletes, the field of sports medicine has exploded in the last decade. The evolution of ACL surgery is just one of several advances in the treatment of athletes and their injuries that have started to serve not only the pros who make a living from their skills, but also the weekend warrior.

This may include individuals who get hurt in the heat of a pick-up game, the neighborhood league player with tennis elbow, the college runner who pulls a tendon, or the high school football player with a possible concussion.
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