Tracing the start of COVID-19 in GA

At a time when COVID-19 appears to be receding in much of Georgia, it’s worth revisiting the start of the pandemic in early 2020. Emory virologist Anne Piantadosi and colleagues have a paper in Viral Evolution on the earliest SARS-CoV-2 genetic sequences detected in Georgia. Analyzing relationships between those virus sequences and samples from other states and countries can give us an idea about where the first COVID-19 infections in Georgia came from. We can draw Read more

Reddit as window into opioid withdrawal strategies

Drug abuse researchers are using the social media site Reddit as a window into the experiences of people living with opioid addiction. Abeed Sarker in Emory's Department of Biomedical Informatics has a paper in Clinical Toxicology focusing on the phenomenon of “precipitated withdrawal,” in collaboration with emergency medicine specialists from Penn, Rutgers and Mt Sinai. Precipitated withdrawal is a more intense form of withdrawal that can occur when someone who was using opioids starts medication-assisted treatment Read more

CROI: HIV cure report and ongoing research

The big news out of CROI (Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections) was a report of a third person being cured of HIV infection, this time using umbilical cord blood for a hematopoetic stem cell transplant. Emory’s Carlos del Rio gave a nice overview of the achievement for NPR this morning. As del Rio explains, the field of HIV cure research took off over the last decade after Timothy Brown, known as “the Berlin patient,” Read more

Department of Microbiology and Immunology

How CMV gets around

Human cytomegalovirus infects most people in the United States by the time they are 40 years old. HCMV is usually harmless in children and adults, but when pregnant women are infected for the first time, the infection can lead to hearing, vision or other problems in their babies once they are born. [It is also a problem for organ transplant recipients.] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, HCMV is usually transmitted by sexual contact, diapers or toys. Notably absent are references to needles. That means scientists who study how mouse CMV infection takes place by injecting the virus into the animal’s body are missing a critical step.

Postdoc Lisa Daley-Bauer, working with CMV expert Ed Mocarski, has a recent paper in the journal Cell Host & Microbe illuminating how the virus travels from sites of initial infections to the rest of the body. Defining the cells the virus uses to get around could have implications for efforts to design a HCMV vaccine.

The virus hijacks part of the immune system, the authors find. CMV emits its own attractant (or chemokine) for patrolling monocytes, a type of white blood cell that circulates in the skin and peripheral tissues. This attractant, called MCK2, is only important when mice are infected by footpad inoculation, not by systemic injection.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment

Emory flu researchers support H7N9 plan

Three Emory scientists have signed a letter published last week in Nature and Science outlining proposed research on the H7N9 avian influenza virus. A strain of H7N9 transmitted from poultry to humans was responsible for 43 deaths in China earlier this year, but so far, evidence shows that the virus does not transmit easily from human to human.

The letter advocates additional research including “gain-of-function” experiments: identifying what changes to naturally occurring viral strains would make them more transmissible, deadly, or drug-resistant in mammals.

The group of 23 flu researchers, led by Ron Fouchier at http://www.agfluide.com Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands and Yoshihiro Kawaoka at the University of Wisconsin, say these types of experiments are needed to help public health authorities prepare for and respond to potential future outbreaks.

The letter signers from Emory are: Walter Orenstein, MD, professor of medicine and principal investigator for the Emory-University of Georgia Influenza Pathogenesis and Immunology Research Center (IPIRC), Richard Compans, PhD, professor of microbiology and immunology and scientific director of IPIRC, and John Steel, PhD, assistant professor of microbiology and immunology. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology 1 Comment