Exosomes as potential biomarkers of radiation exposure

Exosomes = potential biomarkers of radiation in the Read more

Before the cardiologist goes nuclear w/ stress #AHA17

Measuring troponin in CAD patients before embarking on stress testing may provide Read more

Virus hunting season open

Previously unknown viruses, identified by Winship + UCSF scientists, come from a patient with a melanoma that had metastasized to the Read more

CRISPR/Cas9

Enhancing the brain’s clean up crews

Enhancing the brain’s own clean-up crews could be a strategy for handling the toxic proteins driving several neurodegenerative diseases, new research suggests.

Astrocytes, an abundant supportive cell type in the brain, are better than neurons at disposing of mutant huntingtin, the toxic protein that drives Huntington’s disease pathology, Xiao-Jiang Li and colleagues report in this week’s PNAS.

One reason why astrocytes are better at toxic protein defense than neurons is: they have less of an inhibitory protein called HspBP1. The scientists show that using CRISPR/Cas9 to “knock down” HspBP1 can help neurons get rid of mutant huntingtin and reduce early pathological signs.

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Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment

Gene editing reverses Huntington’s in mouse model

Disrupting a problematic gene in brain cells can reverse Huntington’s disease pathology and motor symptoms in a mouse model of the inherited neurological disorder, Emory scientists report.

The researchers used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, delivered by a viral vector, to snip part of a gene producing toxic protein aggregates in the brains of 9-month old mice. Weeks later, where the vector was applied, aggregated proteins had almost disappeared. In addition, the motor abilities of the mice had improved, although not to the level of control mice.

The results were published June 19, 2017 in Journal of Clinical InvestigationEncouraging Tweet from Scripps MD/author Eric Topol.

The findings open up an avenue for treating Huntington’s as well as other inherited neurodegenerative diseases, although more testing of safety and long-term effects is needed, says senior author Xiao-Jiang Li, MD, PhD, distinguished professor of human genetics at Emory University School of Medicine.

Huntington’s disease is caused by a gene encoding a toxic protein (mutant huntingtin or mHTT) that causes brain cells to die. Symptoms commonly appear in mid-life and include uncontrolled movements, balance problems, mood swings and cognitive decline.

Touted widely for its potential, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has not been used to treat any neurodegenerative disease in humans. Several concerns need to be addressed before its use, such as effective delivery and the safety of tinkering with DNA in brain cells. A similar approach, but using a different technology (zinc finger nucleases), was reported for Huntington’s disease in 2012.  Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Neuro Leave a comment

Manipulating mouse genes to order, CRISPR or old-school

Just a follow-up to last week’s announcement from the Emory Transgenic Mouse and Gene Targeting core that they are offering CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing for mice. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to produce genetically altered mice is a

Knockout_mice

Gene targeting – the 20th century way

substantial advance over the old way of doing knockouts and other manipulations (which itself won a Nobel Prize in 2007), mainly because it’s faster and easier.

To appreciate the difference, consider that the old way involves introducing DNA into mouse embryonic stem cells, and then selecting for the rare cells that take up and incorporate the DNA in the right way. Then the ES cells have to be injected into a blastocyst, followed by mouse breeding to “go germline.”

With CRISPR/Cas9, it’s possible to inject pieces of RNA that target the desired genetic changes, straight into a one-cell stage mouse embryo. Not every embryo has all the right changes, but the frequency is high enough to inject and screen. As this review explains, it’s possible to introduce mutations into three genes at once and get mice quickly, rather than make each one separately and then breed the mice together, which can take many months.

Also, because of the need for drug selection, the targeting construct in old-school gene targeting has to be a blunt instrument. That can make it hard to make subtle changes to a gene — like introduce point mutations corresponding to natural variations linked with human disease — without taking a sledgehammer to the entire gene locus. CRISPR/Cas9 takes care of that problem.

Despite the advantages of this technology, three things to keep in mind:

*Many genetically altered mice are already available “off the shelf” as part of the International Knockout Mouse/Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.

*Emory’s Mouse Core has been working with the company Ingenious Gene Targeting, and has been out-sourcing some of the tedious aspects of old-school gene targeting in mice to Ingenious, starting last year. Technicians there can generate a dazzling array of conditional knockouts. If you want your favorite gene to flip around and produce a fluorescent protein when you give the mice an antibiotic, but only in some cells — Ingenious can do that. Old school is actually still the way to go for fancy stuff like this.

*Jackson Labs in Maine also works with Emory, offering similar services, and offers a guarantee. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Uncategorized Leave a comment