Mouse version of 3q29 deletion: insights into schizophrenia/ASD pathways

Emory researchers see investigating 3q29 deletion as a way of unraveling schizophrenia’s biological and genetic Read more

B cells off the rails early in lupus

Emory scientists could discern that in people with SLE, signals driving expansion and activation are present at an earlier stage of B cell differentiation than previously Read more

Head to head narcolepsy/hypersomnia study

At the sleep research meeting in San Antonio this year, there were signs of an impending pharmaceutical arms race in the realm of narcolepsy. The big fish in a small pond, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, was preparing to market its recently FDA-approved medication: Sunosi/solriamfetol. Startup Harmony Biosciences was close behind with pitolisant, already approved in Europe. On the horizon are experimental drugs designed to more precisely target the neuropeptide deficiency in people with classic narcolepsy type 1 Read more

Chemistry and Biology

New opportunities in modulating microRNA

Emory geneticist Peng Jin and his colleagues have a review in the June 25, 2010 issue of Chemistry and Biology exploring whether microRNAs offer new possibilities for pharmacology.

MicroRNAs directly regulate other genes

The microRNA pathway represents both a way for scientists to “knock down” the activity of just one gene in the laboratory, and a major way for cells to regulate their genes during development.

MicroRNAs add a big wallop of complexity on top of the standard model of molecular biology, where the information in DNA is made into RNA, and RNAs make proteins. MicroRNAs don’t get turned into protein, but directly regulate other genes.

Andrew Fire and Craig Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their discovery that short pieces of RNA, when introduced into cells, can silence genes. This “RNA interference” tactic hijacks the natural machinery inside the cell that microRNAs use.

In 2008, Jin and coworkers published in Nature Biotechnology their discovery that certain antibiotics called fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin is one) can make the RNA interference process work more efficiently — in general. In the review, Jin notes that scientists are starting to look for drugs that act more selectively, disrupting or enhancing a particular microRNA rather than many at once:

Since miRNAs play major roles in nearly every cellular process, the identification and characterization of small-molecule modulators of the RNAi/miRNA pathway will yield fresh insights into fundamental mechanisms behind human disease… Moreover, these RNAi modulators, particularly RNAi enhancers, could potentially facilitate the development of RNA interference as a tool for biomedical research and therapeutic interventions.

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Uncategorized Leave a comment