Research on immune cells “exhausted” by chronic viral infection provides clues on how to refine cancer immunotherapy. The results were published Tuesday, Dec. 3 in Immunity.
Scientists at Emory Vaccine Center, led by Rafi Ahmed, PhD, have learned about exhausted CD8 T cells, based on studying mice with chronic viral infections. In the presence of persistent virus or cancer, CD8 T cells lose much of their ability to fight disease, and display inhibitory checkpoint proteins Read more
To prevent auto-immune attack, our bodies avoid making antibodies against molecules found on our own cells. That leaves gaps in our immune defenses bacteria could exploit. Some of those gaps are filled by galectins, a family of proteins whose anti-bacterial properties were identified by Emory scientists.
In the accompanying video, Sean Stowell, MD, PhD and colleagues explain how galectins can be compared to sheep dogs, which are vigilant in protecting our cells (sheep) against bacteria that may try to disguise themselves (wolves).
The video was produced to showcase the breadth of research being conducted within Emoryâ€™s Antibiotic Resistance Center. Because of their ability to selectively target some kinds of bacteria, galectins could potentially be used as antibiotics to treat infections without wiping out all the bacteria in the body. Read more
A term we heard a bunch at the Emory Microbiome Symposium in November was â€œmetagenomicsâ€. Time for an explainer, with some help from Emory geneticist Tim Read.
Nature Reviews Microbiology defines metagenomics as â€œgenomic analysis of microbial DNA that is extracted directly from communities in environmental samples.â€
This technology â€” genomics on a huge scale â€” enables a survey of the different microorganisms present in a specific environment, such as water or soil, to be carried out. Metagenomics is also emerging as a tool for clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases.
Read notes that the term specifically refers to â€œshotgunâ€ sequencing of environmental DNA.
Evolutionary theory says mutations are blind and occur randomly. But in theÂ controversialÂ phenomenon of adaptive mutation, cells can peek under the blindfold, increasing their mutation rate in response to stress.
Scientists at Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University have observed that an apparent “back channel” for genetic information called retromutagenesis can encourage adaptive mutation to take place in bacteria.
“This mechanism may explain how bacteria develop resistance to some types of antibiotics under selective pressure, as well as how mutations in cancer cells enable their growth or resistance to chemotherapy drugs,” says senior author Paul Doetsch, PhD.
Doetsch is professor of biochemistry, radiation oncology and hematology and medical oncology at Emory University School of Medicine and associate director of basic research at Winship Cancer Institute. The first author of the paper is Genetics and Molecular Biology graduate student Jordan Morreall, PhD, who defended his thesis in April.
Retromutagenesis resolves the puzzle: if cells arenâ€™t growing because theyâ€™re under stress, which means their DNA isnâ€™t being copied, how do the new mutants appear?
The answer: a mutation appears in the RNA first. Read more