Many researchers have wanted to enhance NMDA receptor signals to treat disorders such as schizophrenia. But at the same time, they need to avoid killing neurons with “excitotoxicity”, which comes from excess calcium entering the Read more
In 2018, Winship magazine had a feature story on pancreatic cancer. Our team developed an illustration that we hoped could convey the tumors’ complex structure, which contributes to making them difficult to treat. Oncologist Bassel El-Rayes described how the tumors recruit other cells to form a protective shell.
"If you look at a tumor from the pancreas, you will see small nests of cells embedded in scar tissue," he says. "The cancer uses this scar Read more
GeneticistÂ Sampath Prahalad and the familiesÂ he works with wereÂ part of this recent PNAS paper, which probesÂ genetic risk factors for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
There are several subtypes of juvenile arthritis, and sJIA (systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis) sounds especially painful because of its inflammatory symptoms: daily spiking fever and skin rashes in addition to joint pain.
The international team of investigators assembled what they report as the largest collectionÂ of sJIA patients (close to 1000) and identified HLA-DRB1*11 as a genetic risk factor for sJIA.
People with systemic lupus erythematosus can experience a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes and kidney problems. Often the symptoms come and go in episodes called flares. In lupus, the immune system goes haywire and produces antibodies that are directed against the body itself.
A team of Emory scientists has been investigating some fundamental questions about lupus: where do the cells that produce the self-reactive antibodies come from? Are they all the same?
In the accompanying video, Kelli Williams, who helps study the disease and has lupus herself, describes what a flare feels like. In addition, Emory researchers IÃ±aki Sanz, MD and Chris Tipton, PhD explain their findings, which were published this summer inÂ Nature Immunology.
Judging by the number and breadth ofÂ abstractsÂ on lupus at the Department of Medicine Research DayÂ (where Tipton won 1st place for basic science poster),Â more intriguing findings are in the pipeline. Goofy Star Wars metaphors and more explanations of the scienceÂ here.
What applies to meat, vegetables and fish may also apply to cells for use in cell therapy: frozen often isn’t quite as good.
Ian Copland and colleagues from Emory’s Personalized Immunotherapy Center have a paper this week in Stem Cells Reports discussing how freezing and thawing stem cells messes them up. Specifically, it disrupts their actin cytoskeletons and impairs their ability to find their niches in the body. Culturing the cells for 48 hours after thawing does seem to correct the problem, though.
The findings have some straightforward implications for researchers planning to testÂ cell therapies inÂ clinical applications. The authors conclude:
Until such time as a cryopreservation and thawing procedure can yield a viable and fully functional MSC product immediately after thawing, our data support the idea of using live MSCs rather than post-thaw cryo MSCs for clinical evaluation of MSCs as an immunosuppressive agent.
Notably, the Emory Personalized Immunotherapy Center has built a process designed around offering never-frozen autologous (that is, the patient’s own)Â mesenchymal stem cells, as therapies for autoimmune disordersÂ such as Crohn’s disease.