Update on SIV remission studies

Recently presented insights on how an antibody used to treat intestinal diseases can suppress Read more

Granulins treasure not trash - potential FTD treatment strategy

Granulins are of interest to neuroscientists because mutations in the granulin gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the functions of granulins were previously Read more

Blood vessels and cardiac muscle cells off the shelf

How to steer induced pluripotent stem cells into becoming endothelial cells, which line blood Read more

atrial fibrillation

Emory clinical research highlights for #AHA16

Clinical research presentations at 2016 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions: telomeres + circulating progenitor cells, food deserts, and troponin as risk marker for atrial fibrillation.

 

Telomere Shortening, Regenerative Capacity, and Cardiovascular Outcomes Nov. 13, 4:45 pm, Room 346-347

Aging, in general, depletes our bodies’ regenerative capacities. Arshed Quyyumi, MD and colleagues at Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute have shown how circulating progenitor cells or CPCs, which regenerate blood vessels and correlate with outcomes in cardiovascular disease, are a finite resource.

Working with Quyyumi, research fellow Muhammad Hammadah, MD is presenting data on how telomere length interacts with the levels of CPCs, in a study of mental stress ischemia in 566 patients with stable coronary artery disease. Telomeres tend to shorten with ageing and cellular stress, and their length has been a widely studied biomarker.

Hammadah concludes that low leukocyte telomere length is associated with decreased regenerative capacity, independently of age and cardiovascular risk factors. However, telomere length and CPC levels are independent and additive predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes (such as death, heart attack, stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure), he finds. Hammadah is a finalist for the Elizabeth Barrett-Connor Research Award for Young Investigators in Training. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Heart Leave a comment

Emory basic research highlights for #AHA16

Basic research presentations at 2016 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions: cell therapy for heart attack (mesenchymal stem cells) in animal models and role of CD73, gradual release drug for atrial fibrillation, how particles from stored blood affects blood vessels.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Require CD73 Activity to Reduce Leukocyte Associated Inflammation Following Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Nov.13, 1:30 pm, Science and Technology Hall- Basic Science Theater

Cell therapy, using the patient’s own cells to reduce damage to the heart after a heart attack, has been a hot topic. Mesenchymal stem cells are derived from the bone marrow and can’t replace heart muscle. But they do exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects, Eric Shin, MD, Rebecca Levit, MD and colleagues show in a rat model of heart attack.

The researchers use the gel material alginate to encapsulate the cells, in a way previously described by Levit. They say this is the first study to demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells reduce reactive oxygen species production in the heart. and that the molecule CD73, which degrades ATP/ADP into adenosine, is needed for the anti-inflammatory effect. CD73 is also a cancer immunotherapy target. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Heart Leave a comment

Clinical trial for patients with atrial fibrillation tests implantable device in place of blood-thinning drug

Clinical Trial for Patients with A-fib

A new clinical trial underway for patients with atrial fibrillation will test an implantable device in place of a common blood-thinning medication, according to researchers at Emory University Hospital Midtown.

Atrial fibrillation (commonly called A-fib) is a heart condition in which the upper chambers of the heart beat too fast, causing an irregular heartbeat and ineffective pumping action. This condition can cause blood to pool and form clots in the left atrial appendage (LAA). If a clot forms in this area, it can increase the chances of having a stroke.

Many patients with A-fib are prescribed blood-thinning medications, such as warfarin (brand name Coumadin), to prevent blood from clotting. This medication is effective in reducing the risk of stroke, but may cause side effects such as bleeding. It also requires frequent blood draws to monitor dosage levels.

The trial, called PREVAIL (Prospective Randomized EVAluation of the Watchman LAA Closure Device In Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Versus Long Term Warfarin Therapy), involves implanting a small, umbrella-shaped mesh device called the Watchman closure device, into the heart chamber via catheter. This is a confirmatory study (and the third study testing the implant), which will also look at safety and efficacy of the device.

David De Lurgio, MD, associate professor of medicine in the Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, is the principal investigator of the trial. He explains that by implanting this device into the left atrial appendage of the heart, it closes that area off. That, in turn, prevents blood clots from escaping and entering the blood stream, which could lead to a stroke.

Patients are randomly selected by computer to either receive the device or remain on Coumadin without the device (control group). Those selected to receive the device will remain on Coumadin for 45 days following implant. If the heart tissue has healed after those 45 days, participants will be taken off Coumadin and placed on aspirin therapy and possibly clopidogrel (Plavix), an anti-platelet medication.

Researchers will then follow study patients with and without the device for five years, monitoring those who are no longer taking Coumadin very closely. If the FDA approves the device at the end of this clinical trial, participants in the control group will then have the option to receive the device.

De Lurgio and his colleagues have had five years of experience with this technology, thus far. Emory Healthcare is the only health system in Georgia providing access to this device through participation in this clinical trial.

For more information, please call 404-686-2504.

Posted on by Janet Christenbury in Uncategorized Leave a comment