New pediatric digestive/liver disease gene identified by international team

A multinational team of researchers describes a newly identified cause of congenital diarrhea and liver disease in Read more

Tug of war between Parkinson’s protein and growth factors

A “tug of war” situation exists between Parkinson's provocateur protein alpha-synuclein and the growth factor Read more

From stinging to soothing: fire ant venom may lead to skin treatments

Compounds derived from fire ant venom can reduce skin thickening and inflammation in a mouse model of psoriasis, Emory and Case Western scientists have Read more

Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center

Bad neighbors cause bad blood -> cancer

Certain DNA mutations in bone cells that support blood development can drive leukemia formation in nearby blood stem cells, cancer researchers have found.

Many cancer-driving mutations are “cell-autonomous,” meaning the change in a cell’s DNA makes that same cell grow more rapidly. In contrast, an indirect neighbor cell effect was observed in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome, an inherited disorder that increases the risk of developing leukemia.

bone-marrow-300

In mouse bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells (red), which normally nurture blood stem cells, produce a signal that is attractive for monocytes. The monocytes (green) prod nearby blood stem cells to proliferate, leading to leukemia. From Dong et al Nature (2016).

The findings were published Wednesday, October 26 in Nature.

The neighbor cell effect could be frustrating efforts to treat leukemias in patients with Noonan syndrome and a related condition, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). That’s because bone marrow transplant may remove the cancerous cells, but not the cause of the problem, leading to disease recurrence. However, the researchers show that a class of drugs can dampen the cancer-driving neighbor effect in mice. One of the drugs, maraviroc, is already FDA-approved against HIV infection.

“Our research highlights the importance of the bone marrow microenvironment,” says Cheng-Kui Qu, MD, PhD, professor of pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute and Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. “We found that a disease-associated mutation, which disturbs the niches where blood stem cell development occurs, can lead to leukemia formation.”

Editorial note: This Nature News + Views, aptly titled “Bad neighbors cause bad blood,” explains JMML, and how the relapse rate after bone marrow transplant is high (about 50 percent). It also notes that a variety of genetic alterations provoke leukemia when engineered into bone marrow stromal cells in mice (like this), but Qu and his colleagues described one that is associated with a known human disease.

Noonan syndrome often involves short stature, distinctive facial features, congenital heart defects and bleeding problems. It occurs in between one in 1000 to one in 2500 people, and can be caused by mutations in several genes. The most common cause is mutations in the gene PTPN11. Children with Noonan syndrome are estimated to have a risk of developing leukemia or other cancers that is eight times higher than their peers.
Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Cancer, Immunology Leave a comment

Strength tests for platelets

Bleeding disorders could one day be diagnosed by putting platelets through strength tests, researchers have proposed.

Biomedical engineers from Emory and Georgia Tech have devised a microfluidic testing ground where platelets can demonstrate their strength by squeezing two protein dots together. Imagine rows and rows of strength testing machines from a carnival, but very tiny. Platelets are capable of exerting forces that are several times larger, in relation to their size, in comparison with muscle cells.

After a blood clot forms, it contracts, promoting wound closure and restoration of normal blood flow. This process can be deficient in a variety of blood clotting disorders. Previously, it was difficult to measure individual platelet’s contributions to contraction, because clots’ various components got in the way.

The prototype diagnostic tools are described in Nature Materials.

platelet_strength_test

Top: platelets exert their strength. Bottom left: red = platelets, green = fibrinogen dots. Bottom right: size of actual device.

“We discovered that platelets from some patients with bleeding disorders are ‘wimpier’ than platelets from healthy people,” says Wilbur Lam, MD, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine and in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University. “Our device may function as a new physics-based method to test for bleeding disorders, complementary to current methods.”

The first author of the paper is instructor David Myers, PhD. Lam is also a physician in the Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. Collaborators at North Carolina State University led by Ashley Brown, PhD, contributed to testing the device.

The scientists infer how strong or wimpy someone’s platelets are by measuring how far the protein dots move, taking a picture of the rows of dots, and then analyzing the picture on a computer. The dots are made of fibrinogen, a sticky protein that is the precursor for fibrin, which forms a mesh of insoluble strands in a blood clot.

In addition to detecting problems with platelet contraction in patients with known inherited disorders such as Wiskott Aldrich syndrome, Myers, Lam and colleagues could also see differences in some patients who had bleeding symptoms, but who performed normally on standard diagnostic tests. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Heart, Uncategorized Leave a comment

FDA approves treatment for acquired hemophilia

On Oct. 24, the Food and Drug Administration approved Obizur, a treatment for acquired hemophilia A. Obizur was originally developed by a research team led by Emory hematologist Pete Lollar. The Obizur technology was licensed by Emory in 1998 to startup company Octagen (more about Octagen from Philadelphia Business Journal) and eventually brought to commercial availability by the pharmaceutical firm Baxter International.

Lollar is Hemophilia of Georgia Professor of Pediatrics in the Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center at Emory University School of Medicine and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta. The team that developed the drug included Ernest Parker, John Healey and Rachel Barrow, and followed a research collaboration between Lollar and Emory cardiologist Marschall Runge (now at UNC).

Hemophilia is a group of blood clotting disorders leading to excessive bleeding that can occur spontaneously or following injury or surgery. Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency of clotting factor VIII, and can be either inherited or acquired.

In acquired hemophilia A, the immune system is somehow provoked into making antibodies against factor VIII that inactivate it. Acquired hemophilia is a challenge for doctors to deal with because patients frequently present with severe, life threatening bleeding and also because it’s a surprise: patients do not have a previous personal or family history of bleeding episodes. Antibodies to factor VIII also can be a problem for approximately 30 percent of patients with inherited hemophilia.

Lollar’s team developed a modified form of factor VIII, derived from the protein sequence of pigs, which is less of a red flag to the immune system. Read more

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment

A model for fetal hemolytic disease

Part of standard prenatal care for a pregnant woman is to test her blood for antibodies against the red blood cells of her baby, such as anti-Rhesus D antibodies. An incompatibility can result in hemolytic disease, where the mother’s antibodies attack fetal red blood cells. The development of a therapy for Rhesus D incompatibility was one of the major success stories of medical research in the 1960s.

Jeanne Hendrickson, MD

Although Rhesus D is the most common troublemaker, other anti-red blood cell antibodies such as those against the Kell protein can also cause hemolytic disease of the fetus. The origin is often from sensitization related to previous blood transfusions. At a recent seminar, pediatric hematologist Jeanne Hendrickson described a recent case that illustrates how serious this condition can be. Hendrickson is associate medical director of Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta’s Blood and Tissue Bank, and an assistant professor in pediatrics and pathology at Emory.

Early in her second pregnancy, a woman had developed anti-Kell antibodies, causing the baby to develop anemia and the early stages of fetal heart failure. Several intrauterine transfusions, which carry a risk of miscarriage, were required. At one point, Hendrickson says, the mother was in the http://www.raybani.com/ hospital for a week while doctors looked for compatible blood. When the baby was born, he was very pale and continues to need medical care, because anti-Kell antibodies interfere with red blood cell development.

Unfortunately, there is nothing analogous to RhoGam (the standard therapy for Rhesus D) for this situation. Today, 6 out of 1000 pregnancies are affected by red blood cell immunization. And despite its success, Hendrickson says some mystery remains about exactly how RhoGam works.

First author Sean Stowell, MD, PhD

First author Sean Stowell, MD, PhD

She and her colleagues have a new paper in the journal Blood describing an animal model for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn involving anti-Kell antibodies. Postdoc Sean Stowell is the first author Ray Ban outlet of the paper. This is the first animal model of anti-red blood cell antibodies generated through pregnancy – previous rabbit experiments dating back to the 1950s involved transfusions and/or immunizations.

The model uses mice that have been engineered to produce a human form of Kell protein on their red blood cells. When male mice positive for this extra gene mate with females who don’t have it, the litters are smaller and some of the pups are anemic or stillborn. The authors say that the model could provide a platform for studying how anti-red blood cell antibodies develop, as well as potential therapies.

Another recent paper from Stowell and Hendrickson describes a similar mouse model involving anti-red blood cell antibodies that develop because of transfusions rather than pregnancy. Between 3 and 5 percent of patients who get a blood transfusion will develop antibodies against Ray Ban online something on the red blood cells they received, making future transfusions possibly more problematic.

At the seminar, we learned that Hendrickson will be moving to Yale University later this summer. We wish her good luck at her new job.

 

 

 

 

Posted on by Quinn Eastman in Immunology Leave a comment

Emory University Hospital Set to Be Launch Site for EPIC

Can it really be possible to transform a person’s own cells into a weapon against various forms of disease? And what if those very cells could be retrained to attack cancer cells or to prevent autoimmune diseases?

Answers to these questions and many more are about to soon be realized, as Emory University Hospital will serve as the launch site for the very appropriately-named EPIC (Emory Personalized Immunotherapy Center).

The new Center, which is the creation of Dr. Jacques Galipeau, MD, professor of hematology and medical oncology & pediatrics of Emory University, will soon be operational after final touches have been put on construction of the lab. This cell processing facility will foster development of novel personalized cellular therapies for Emory patients facing catastrophic ailments and unmet medical needs.

According to Galipeau, the premise of EPIC and its overlying mission will focus on cellular and biological therapies that use a patient’s own cells as a weapon to seek and destroy cells that actually make a person sick. In partnership with the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Aflac Cancer & Blood Disorders Center and the Emory School of Medicine, EPIC seeks to improve the health of children and adults afflicted with cancer and immune disease.

“First and foremost, we seek to bring a level of care and discovery that is first in Georgia, first in human and first in child. Blood and marrow derived cells have been used for more than a quarter century to treat life threatening hematological conditions and are now established therapies worldwide. More recently, the use of specific adult somatic cells from marrow, blood and other tissues are being studied in cellular medicine of a wide array of ailments including heart, lung, neurological and immune diseases,” says Galipeau. “The use of blood borne immune cells can also be exploited for treatment of cancer, autoimmune disease, organ transplantation and chronic viral illnesses such as HIV.”

Galipeau said that once operational, EPIC will begin by working with Crohn’s disease in pediatric and adult patients, an inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of Crohn’s disease include severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, weight loss, and the inability for a child to properly grow. Resulting bouts of inflammation may also affect the entire digestive tract, including the mouth, esophagus and stomach.  In some cases, a radical surgery involving the removal of part of the lower intestinal tract is required.

“There is no current answer for what specifically causes Crohn’s disease, nor is there a cure. But we hope that through our research and efforts, we will be able to first target the inflammatory mechanisms in these patients through immunotherapy, and in turn reduce the amount of flare-ups and limit  the damage that occurs from this disease,” says Galipeau.

Galipeau says the EPIC program could represent a powerful cornerstone to the launch and the development of an entirely new, Emory-based initiative which bundles the strengths of the School of Medicine, Emory University Hospital, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, and many Woodruff Health Sciences Center centers of excellence,” says Galipeau.

“My ultimate goal is to elevate the biomedical scientific and scholarly enterprise to a higher level – making a difference in the lives of people. The EPIC program and multi-levels of support could be a fundamental underpinning to our success.”

Posted on by Lance Skelly in Immunology Leave a comment