Adoptive cell transfer is advancing as a cancer immunotherapy technique. It involves removing some of a patientâ€™s immune cells, culturing them in the laboratory, and then infusing the cells back into the patient. The idea is to enhance the ability of the immune cells to attack the tumors far beyond what the immune system was able of doing on its own.
Two promising examples are the National Cancer Instituteâ€™s approach of treating advanced melanoma with IL-2-stimulated immune cells, and several investigatorsâ€™ approach of genetically engineering T cells to attack leukemias or lymphomas.
Jacques Galipeau and colleagues at Winship Cancer Institute have developed a chimeric molecule for stimulating immune cells, which appears to have unique powers beyond simply the sum of its two parts. The molecule is called GIFT4, a fusion of the immune signaling molecules GM-CSF (often used in cancer treatment) and IL-4.