The idea that particular lipid components, such as omega-3 fatty acids, promote health is quite familiar, so the finding that the lipid oleoylethanolamide or OEA extends longevity in the worm C. elegans is perhaps not so surprising. However, a recent paper in Science is remarkable for what it reveals about how OEA exerts its effects.
Scientists at Baylor College of Medicine led by Meng Wang, with some help from biochemists Eric Ortlund and Eric Armstrong at Emory, discovered that OEA is a way one part of the cell, the lysosome, talks to another part, the nucleus. Lysosomes are sort of recycling centers/trash digestersÂ (important for autophagy) and the nucleus is the control tower for the cell. The authors show that starting in lysosomes, OEA travels to the nucleus and activates nuclear hormone receptors (the Ortlund labâ€™s specialty). Read more
It is a privilege to work at Emory and learn about and report on so much quality biomedical research. I started to make a top 10 for 2014 and had too many favorites. After divertingÂ some of these topics into the 2015 crystal ball
,Â I corralledÂ them into themes.
1. Cardiac cell therapy
2. Mobilizing the body’s own regenerative potential
4. Parkinson’s disease therapeutic strategies
(Gary Miller, better packaging for dopamine could avoidÂ stress to neurons).
5. Personal genomics/exome sequencing
, likeÂ Emory’s Robert Gross
and Costas Hadjpanayis, do amazing things
7. Fun vsÂ no fun
Our Web expert
tells me this was Lab Land’s most widely read post last year.
9. Fine-tuning approaches to cancer
Alzheimer’s protein pathology
While a wise Dane once proposed that predictions are dangerous, especially concerningÂ the future, it’s usuallyÂ helpful to plan ahead. Here are five biomedical research topicsÂ we think will occupy our attention in 2015.
1. Alzheimer’s Weâ€™re hearing discordant music coming from Alzheimerâ€™s researchers. Large pharmaceutical companies are shutting down clinical trials in frustration, but researchers keep coming forward with biomarkers that mightÂ predict future disease. This confusing situation calls for some new thinking. Allan Levey, Jim Lah and colleagues have been preparing the way for a â€œbeyond the usual suspectsâ€ look at Alzheimerâ€™s disease. We are looking forward to Leveyâ€™s appearance at the 2015 AAAS meeting and to drug discovery wizard Keqiang Yeâ€™s continuing work on new therapeutic targets.
2. Ebola While the scare over Ebola in the United States may be over (we hope so!), the outbreak continues to devastate countriesÂ in West Africa. Clinical trials testingÂ vaccines and experimental drugs are underway or will be soon. Read more
One of Lab Landâ€™s regular features is a post exploring a biomedical term that seems to be appearing frequently in connection with Emory research. This month Iâ€™d like to focus on frailty, which has been an important concept in treating elderly patients for some time. (This pieceÂ in The Atlantic nudged me into it.) Assessing frailty is emerging as a way for surgeons to predict post-operative complications.
Several teams of researchers have been trying to develop a standardized way of measuring frailty to aid in weighing the risks and benefits of surgery. Frailty may seem like a subjective quality (echoing Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewartâ€™s remarks on obscenity: â€œI know it when I see itâ€) but if frailty can be defined objectively, doctors and patients can use it to help in decision-making.
Frailty can be thought of as a decrease in physiological reserve or a decrease in the ability to recover from an infection or injury. Much of the credit for developing the concept of frailty should go to Linda Fried, now dean of Columbiaâ€™s school of public health. While at Johns Hopkins, her team developed the Hopkins Frailty Score: a composite based on recent weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, low daily activity levels, low grip strength and slow gait. Read more
Loud applause for the members of SWAE. The student group Science Writers at Emory, previouslyÂ dormant, has relaunched the publication â€œIn Scriptoâ€. We look forward to seeing more from SWAE.
The newÂ Halloween-themed issue of In Scripto is published in â€œISSUUâ€, but Iâ€™ve broken it down into a table of contents by author, graduate program and article: Read more
PeopleÂ interested in drug discoveryÂ may have heard of “Lipinski’s rule of five,” a rough-and-ready set of rules for determining whether a chemical structure is going to be viable as a orally administered drug or not. TheyÂ basically say that if a compound is too big, too greasy or too complicated, it’s not going to get into the body and make it to the cells you want to affect. These guidelinesÂ have been the topic of much debate among medicinal chemists and pharmacologists.
The namesakeÂ forÂ this set of rules, Chris Lipinski, will be speakingÂ at Winship Cancer Institute Wednesday afternoonÂ (4:30 pm, Nov 5, C5012) onÂ “The Rule of 5, Public Chemistry-Biology Databases and Their Impact on Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery.” Lipinski spent most of his career at Pfizer (while there,Â he published the “rule of 5 paper“) and now is a consultant at Melior Discovery.
DNA bricks keep getting larger. In 2012, a team of researchers at Harvard described their ability to make self-assembling structures –made completely out of DNA — that were about the size of viruses (80 nanometers across).
Yonggang Ke, PhD
Now theyâ€™re scaling up, making bricks that are 1000 times larger and getting close to a size that could be barely visible to the naked eye.
The advances were reported in Nature Chemistry.
Who: a team of researchers at the Wyss Institute at Harvard led by Peng Yin, and including Yonggang Ke, PhD, now an assistant professor in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University.
At Emory, Ke and his team are continuing to design 3D DNA machines, withÂ potential functionsÂ such as fluorescent nanoantennae, drug delivery vehicles and synthetic membrane channels.
How: The DNA brick method uses short, synthetic strands of DNA that work like interlocking LegoÂ® bricks to build complex structures. Structures are first designed using a computer model of a molecular cube, which becomes a master canvas. Each brick is added or removed independently from the 3D master canvas to arrive at the desired shape. TheÂ DNA strands that would match up to achieve the desired structure are mixed together and self assemble — with the help of magnesium salts — to achieve the designed crystal structures.
“Therein lies the key distinguishing feature of our design strategyâ€“its modularity,” Ke says. “The ability to simply add or remove pieces from the master canvas makes it easy to create virtually any design.”
What for: AsÂ part of this study the team demonstrated the ability to position gold nanoparticles less than two nanometers apart from each other along the crystal structure â€” a critical feature for future quantum computational devices and a significant technical advance for their scalable production.
Biomedical engineer Yonggang Ke‘s “DNA origami” artwork appears on the cover of Nature Methods, as part of a celebration of the journal’s 10th anniversary. Ke designed self-assembling DNA strands that would form a cylinder and a ring structure, let them assemble, and obtained images with transmission electron microscopy. The height of the final image is 120 nanometers, smaller than the wavelengths of visible light and about the size of an influenza or HIV virion.
You may have been hearing about the advent of Big Data: truckloads of information coming from cell phones, satellites, microscopes, and perhapsÂ someday, wearable health monitoring devices.
At Emory, specialists in biomedical informatics have been in the forefront of efforts to design software that will allow scientists to learn from these mountains of data. Fusheng Wang was recently named as co-PI on a five-year $5 million National Science Foundation grant to create MIDAS (Middleware for Data-Intensive Analytics and Science), part of the NSF’sÂ Data Infrastructure Building Blocks program. For this grant, the team consists of seven institutions: Indiana University (lead — Geoffrey Fox), Arizona State, Emory, Kansas, Rutgers, Utah and Virginia Tech.
Wang also recently received a NSF Career award in this same area.
The MIDAS project addresses major data challenges in seven different communities: biomolecular simulations, network and computational social science, epidemiology,Â computer vision, spatial geographical information systems, remote sensing for polar science, and pathology informatics.Â Wang is responsible for pathology informatics and geospatial, gathering requirements from those communitiesÂ and implementing the spatial query and parts of the image analysis library. The libraries are supposed to beÂ interoperable across a range of computing systems including clouds, clusters and supercomputers. The project includes a plan to develop a open online course (MOOC), according to the NSF.
Cardiac cell therapy sounds like a promising idea: use the patientsâ€™ own cells to enhance healing or even regenerate the damaged heart muscle. Doctors have taken up the promise, testing it in clinical trials involving thousands of patients. But a basic problem facing the field is this: naked cells donâ€™t appear to stay in the heart orÂ stay alive for long enough to provide a sustained benefit.
Three labs at Emory have published papers in the last year addressing this problem. All describe some kind of supportive biomaterials, consisting of capsules or a gel, which help cells stay put and stay alive, in experiments where recovery from a heart attack is modeled in rodents.
The most recent comes from cardiologist Young-sup Yoon and colleagues, in ACS Nano. The first author is Kiwon Ban, a senior postdoc in Yoonâ€™s laboratory. Ban and his team use self-assembling peptides, developed in collaboration with biomaterials engineer Ho-wook Jun at UABÂ (see figure). The peptides form a gel that both physicallyÂ keeps cardiac muscle cells in the heart and eases their integration into the heart tissue over a period of weeks. As Katie Bourzac explains in Chemical & Engineering News:
One peptide acts like a natural protein that adheres to cells and promotes cell survival. The second peptide is readily broken down by a protease. The team designed the gel so that when it is implanted, it begins to degrade a bit, allowing cells from the body to migrate in. Eventually the gel should disintegrate completely as the heart tissue builds its own extracellular matrix. This particular gel has already performed well as a support for other kinds of cells grown from stem cells, including pancreatic and muscle cells.
We thought it may be useful to readers to be able to compare and contrast these papers in chart form.Â Read more