Two Emory graduate students, Anzar Abbas and Katie Strong, will be spending the summer testingÂ their communication skills as part of the AAAS Mass Media fellowship program. The program is supposed to promote science communication by giving young scientists a taste of what life is like at media organizations around the country. Both of Emory’s fellowsÂ have already gained some experience in this realm.
Abbas, a Neuroscience student who recently joined brainÂ imaging number cruncherÂ Shella Keilholz‘s lab, will be at Howard Hughes Medical Institute. He is part of the group that recently revived the Science Writers at Emory publication In Scripto.
Strong, a Chemistry student working with Dennis Liotta on selective NMDA receptor drugs, will be at the Sacramento Bee. She has been quite prolific at the American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience and its Neuroethics Blog.
(Thanks to Ian Campbell, a previous AAAS Mass Media fellow from Emory who worked at the Oregonian, for notifying me on this!)
The increasing clinical use of next generation sequencing, especially whole exome and whole genome, continues to be a hot topic. The ability to contribute to diagnosis, clinical utility, incidental findings and whether insurance will cover next-gen sequencing are all changing.
A Nature Medicine article lays out a lot of the emerging business issues on next-gen sequencing. On the topic of incidental findings, Buzzfeed science editor Virginia Hughes last week reported stories of women who receive a cancer diagnosis as a result of having a prenatal genetic test.
â€œThese cases, though extremely rare, are raising ethical questions about the unregulated â€“ and rapidly evolving â€“ genetic-testing industry,â€ Buzzfeed says.
At a recent Department of Pediatrics seminar, Emory geneticist Michael Gambello described examples of how whole exome sequencing, performed to diagnose intellectual disability or developmental problems in a child, can uncover cancer or neurodegenerative disease risk mutations in a parent. The question becomes, whether to notify the parent for something that may or may not be actionable. This is why Emory Genetics Laboratoryâ€™s whole exome sequencing service has an extensive â€œopt-in/opt-outâ€ consent process.
Emory Genetics Laboratory executive director Madhuri Hegde, working with the Association of Molecular Pathology, has been a leader in pushing genetic testing laboratories to adopt best practices. Read more
Intuition may suggest that smoke is bad for the lungs, whether it comes from a campfire or from tobacco or marijuana. AÂ practical question is: how bad is an occasional joint, compared with some background level of air pollution and the lungsâ€™ ability to cope?
Since a few states have been loosening restrictions on marijuana, a group ofÂ Emory pulmonologists â€“ Jordan Kempker, Eric Honig, and Greg Martin — decided to look at the long-term effects of marijuana smoking on lung function. Their findings, published in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society (PDF), have already attracted some attention. Read more
The idea that particular lipid components, such as omega-3 fatty acids, promote health is quite familiar, so the finding that the lipid oleoylethanolamide or OEA extends longevity in the worm C. elegans is perhaps not so surprising. However, a recent paper in Science is remarkable for what it reveals about how OEA exerts its effects.
Scientists at Baylor College of Medicine led by Meng Wang, with some help from biochemists Eric Ortlund and Eric Armstrong at Emory, discovered that OEA is a way one part of the cell, the lysosome, talks to another part, the nucleus. Lysosomes are sort of recycling centers/trash digestersÂ (important for autophagy) and the nucleus is the control tower for the cell. The authors show that starting in lysosomes, OEA travels to the nucleus and activates nuclear hormone receptors (the Ortlund labâ€™s specialty). Read more
It is a privilege to work at Emory and learn about and report on so much quality biomedical research. I started to make a top 10 for 2014 and had too many favorites. After divertingÂ some of these topics into the 2015 crystal ball
,Â I corralledÂ them into themes.
1. Cardiac cell therapy
2. Mobilizing the body’s own regenerative potential
4. Parkinson’s disease therapeutic strategies
(Gary Miller, better packaging for dopamine could avoidÂ stress to neurons).
5. Personal genomics/exome sequencing
, likeÂ Emory’s Robert Gross
and Costas Hadjpanayis, do amazing things
7. Fun vsÂ no fun
Our Web expert
tells me this was Lab Land’s most widely read post last year.
9. Fine-tuning approaches to cancer
Alzheimer’s protein pathology
While a wise Dane once proposed that predictions are dangerous, especially concerningÂ the future, it’s usuallyÂ helpful to plan ahead. Here are five biomedical research topicsÂ we think will occupy our attention in 2015.
1. Alzheimer’s Weâ€™re hearing discordant music coming from Alzheimerâ€™s researchers. Large pharmaceutical companies are shutting down clinical trials in frustration, but researchers keep coming forward with biomarkers that mightÂ predict future disease. This confusing situation calls for some new thinking. Allan Levey, Jim Lah and colleagues have been preparing the way for a â€œbeyond the usual suspectsâ€ look at Alzheimerâ€™s disease. We are looking forward to Leveyâ€™s appearance at the 2015 AAAS meeting and to drug discovery wizard Keqiang Yeâ€™s continuing work on new therapeutic targets.
2. Ebola While the scare over Ebola in the United States may be over (we hope so!), the outbreak continues to devastate countriesÂ in West Africa. Clinical trials testingÂ vaccines and experimental drugs are underway or will be soon. Read more
One of Lab Landâ€™s regular features is a post exploring a biomedical term that seems to be appearing frequently in connection with Emory research. This month Iâ€™d like to focus on frailty, which has been an important concept in treating elderly patients for some time. (This pieceÂ in The Atlantic nudged me into it.) Assessing frailty is emerging as a way for surgeons to predict post-operative complications.
Several teams of researchers have been trying to develop a standardized way of measuring frailty to aid in weighing the risks and benefits of surgery. Frailty may seem like a subjective quality (echoing Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewartâ€™s remarks on obscenity: â€œI know it when I see itâ€) but if frailty can be defined objectively, doctors and patients can use it to help in decision-making.
Frailty can be thought of as a decrease in physiological reserve or a decrease in the ability to recover from an infection or injury. Much of the credit for developing the concept of frailty should go to Linda Fried, now dean of Columbiaâ€™s school of public health. While at Johns Hopkins, her team developed the Hopkins Frailty Score: a composite based on recent weight loss, self-reported exhaustion, low daily activity levels, low grip strength and slow gait. Read more
Loud applause for the members of SWAE. The student group Science Writers at Emory, previouslyÂ dormant, has relaunched the publication â€œIn Scriptoâ€. We look forward to seeing more from SWAE.
The newÂ Halloween-themed issue of In Scripto is published in â€œISSUUâ€, but Iâ€™ve broken it down into a table of contents by author, graduate program and article: Read more
PeopleÂ interested in drug discoveryÂ may have heard of “Lipinski’s rule of five,” a rough-and-ready set of rules for determining whether a chemical structure is going to be viable as a orally administered drug or not. TheyÂ basically say that if a compound is too big, too greasy or too complicated, it’s not going to get into the body and make it to the cells you want to affect. These guidelinesÂ have been the topic of much debate among medicinal chemists and pharmacologists.
The namesakeÂ forÂ this set of rules, Chris Lipinski, will be speakingÂ at Winship Cancer Institute Wednesday afternoonÂ (4:30 pm, Nov 5, C5012) onÂ “The Rule of 5, Public Chemistry-Biology Databases and Their Impact on Chemical Biology and Drug Discovery.” Lipinski spent most of his career at Pfizer (while there,Â he published the “rule of 5 paper“) and now is a consultant at Melior Discovery.
DNA bricks keep getting larger. In 2012, a team of researchers at Harvard described their ability to make self-assembling structures –made completely out of DNA — that were about the size of viruses (80 nanometers across).
Yonggang Ke, PhD
Now theyâ€™re scaling up, making bricks that are 1000 times larger and getting close to a size that could be barely visible to the naked eye.
The advances were reported in Nature Chemistry.
Who: a team of researchers at the Wyss Institute at Harvard led by Peng Yin, and including Yonggang Ke, PhD, now an assistant professor in the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University.
At Emory, Ke and his team are continuing to design 3D DNA machines, withÂ potential functionsÂ such as fluorescent nanoantennae, drug delivery vehicles and synthetic membrane channels.
How: The DNA brick method uses short, synthetic strands of DNA that work like interlocking LegoÂ® bricks to build complex structures. Structures are first designed using a computer model of a molecular cube, which becomes a master canvas. Each brick is added or removed independently from the 3D master canvas to arrive at the desired shape. TheÂ DNA strands that would match up to achieve the desired structure are mixed together and self assemble — with the help of magnesium salts — to achieve the designed crystal structures.
“Therein lies the key distinguishing feature of our design strategyâ€“its modularity,” Ke says. “The ability to simply add or remove pieces from the master canvas makes it easy to create virtually any design.”
What for: AsÂ part of this study the team demonstrated the ability to position gold nanoparticles less than two nanometers apart from each other along the crystal structure â€” a critical feature for future quantum computational devices and a significant technical advance for their scalable production.